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Full text of "The coins of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan"

HE COINS 



OF 



HAIDAR ALT AND TIPl" SULTAN 



R. HHXI >N, C.I.E., A!. I). C.M, (EDIN. 






1'Ki 



MADRAS: 
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS. 

1921. 




to 



of % 

tt of 



F. If. Anastrongylsq 



75 



15 




10 



SOUTH INDIA 

Scale in Miles 
100 200 



Mangalore 



"fehitaldrug'iV.:;': QGurramkond 



x I 



'Madras 




Mints underlined Myiore 

Boundary of Mysore at the height of Tipu's power 

Boundary of Mysore after the Treaty of 1792 .. 

Boundary of Mysore since 1799 



75 



80 



MINTS OF HAIDAR ALl AND TIPU SULTAN. 



THE COINS 



OF 



HAIDAR All AND TIPU SULTAN 



J* BY 

f. R? HENDERSON, C.I.E., M.B., CM. (EDIN.) 

Forwrly Superintendent^ Madras Government Museum. 



MADRAS: 
PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS. 



1921 



cj- 




PRE FACE. 



'HPHIS account of the coins of Haidar All and Tlpu 
' Sultan is largely based on the collection of the 
Madras Government Museum, which, so far at least as the 
copper issues are concerned, is probably one of the most 
complete in existence. I have, however, also taken other 
sources into account, such as the works of previous writers, 
the large collections of the British Museum, London, and 
the Mysore Government Museum at Bangalore, as well as 
private collections. I regret that the notes which I took on 
the occasion of my visits to the two institutions just referred 
to are not as complete as I could have wished, and I have 
not been able to revisit these collections in recent years. 
The letter M following the number of a coin indicates that 
it is represented in the collection of the Madras Museum. 

In cataloguing the somewhat complicated issues of Tlpu 
Sultan, I am convinced that, if confusion is to be avoided, 
the only safe course is to arrange the coins according to 
mints. In leaving the size of the coins to be inferred from 
the plates, and making comparatively little reference to 
their weight, I have perhaps laid myself open to adverse 
criticism ; but as most of the coins were roughly struck there 
are frequent variations in their size, and to some extent also 
in their weight. I have tried to indicate the chief variations 
in weight, without giving unnecessary details in regard 
to individual specimens. 

In an attempt to indicate the relative scarcity or 
abundance of the different coins, I have perhaps ventured 
on an innovation in works of this kind. I have, however, 
attempted to do so on account of exceptional opportunities 
for forming such an opinion ; during a period of over 
quarter of a century many thousands of these coins, collected 
from all parts of Southern India, have passed through my 
hands. 



iv PREFACE 

All tfie coins entered in the catalogue without the name 
of an authority have been seen by myself, while some of 
those which are followed by the name of the writer who first 
recorded the coin, have not come under my personal 
examination. A good many are recorded for the first time, 
but it has not been thought necessary to particularize 

these. 

/ 

In drawing up the short historical notes which accompany 
the catalogue, I have been struck by the fact that no 
adequate account of the lives of Haidar All and Tipu Sulfan 
has yet appeared. There must be unworked sources of infor- 
mation still available in Mysore, and I would express the 
hope that worthy biographies of these two remarkable men, 
written by one or more of their own countrymen, may yet 
appear. 

In conclusion, while acknowledging my indebtedness 
to the various writers who have preceded me, I would 
specially mention the help I have received from the writings 
of Major R. P. Jackson and the Rev. Dr. G. P. Taylor, two 
of the latest authorities on the subject. Major Jackson's 
ist, based on his own collection, is the largest hitherto pub- 
lished, while the late Dr. Taylor, who applied his great 
knowledge of Indian Muhammadan coins to those of Tipu 
Sultan, has furnished details in regard to the inscriptions 
and other matters on which I have freely drawn. 

My thanks are due to Mr. G. F. Hill, Keeper of the 
Department of Coins and Medals, British Museum, and to 
Mr. J. Allan of the same Department, for assistance kindly 
rendered in connexion with the preparation of the plates, 
which have been printed at the University Press, Oxford. 

MADRAS, 
March, 1919. J. R. HENDERSON. 



C O N T E N T S . 



Pages 

Preface ... ... ... ... ... ... ... {{{ 

Introduction ... ... ... ... ... .. v ii 

Coins of Haidar All ... ^ I 

Coins of Tip u Sultan ... ... ... ... g 

Table of Dates ... ... ... ... 28 

Table of Gold and Silver Coins ... ... ... ... 29 

Table of Copper Coins ... ... ... ... ... 30 

1. Pattan 31 

2. Nagar 62 

3. Faiz Hisar ... ... ... 76 

4. Bengalur ... ... 87 

5. Farrukh-yab Hisar ... ... 92 

6. Kallkut ... ... 96 

7. Farrukhl 100 

8. Salamabad ... . ... ... ... ... 103 

9. Khaliqabad ... 105 

10. Zafarabad ... ... no 

11. Khwurshed-sawad ... ... 1 12 

12. Nazarbar ... 116 

Bibliography ... ... ... 117 

List of Plates ... 119 



THE COINS OF HAIDAR ALI AND TIPU SULTAN. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Many features of interest are presented by the coins of the two 
Muhammadan sovereigns who controlled the destinies of Mysore for 
the brief period of thirty-eight years, Haidar All, the illiterate 
warrior, able in troublous and therefore propitious times to establish 
a kingdom by his forceful personality and military genius, and Tipu 
Sultan, the son, who was unable to retain that kingdom. They are 
memorials of two remarkable men with whom Britain was frequently 
at war, issued at a time when the question of European supremacy 
in India was still in process of determination. But in addition to 
their historical associations and the light which they throw on the 
policy and even on the personal characteristics of the two rulers, 
there are other features which render the coins specially attractive 
to collectors. Many of them are still met with in considerable 
numbers, not only in the bazaars of nearly every Mysore village, 
but also over a considerable part of Southern India, while others 
again are of extreme rarity. The well-executed figure of an 
elephant, introduced by Haidar on some of the copper coins issued 
towards the close of his reign, and continued by Tipu on all those 
struck in the same metal, forms a distinctive feature ; many of the 
gold and silver pieces afford indisputable testimony to the decora- 
tive value of the Arabic script, and it may be doubted if any coin 
more attractive in this respect than Tlpu's double-rupee has ever 
been struck in India. For all these reasons it is not surprising that 
an extensive literature has sprung up on the subject, and no series 
of coins issued in South India and few in other parts of the country 
have been more often described or referred to. 

The Mysore table-land during the first half of the eighteenth 
century consisted of several petty States ruled by more or less 
independent Poligars or Nayaks, in addition to the larger and more 
important State of Mysore, then as now under the control of a 
Hindu Raja. To the north the chief powers were the Marathas, a 
powerful Hindu confederation occupying what is now the southern 
part of the Bombay Presidency, with their capital at Poona, and 
the important Muhammadan State of Hyderabad, ruled by the 
Nizams who controlled the greater part of Southern India and had 
practically set themselves free from Mughal sovereignty. The 
chief ruler in the south was the Nawab of Arcot, who while 
nominally owing allegiance to the Nizam held sway over a consi- 
derable part of Southern India, including the district around 
Madras. Several Muhammadan chiefs, in what are now known as 
the Ceded Districts, viz., the Nawabs of Cuddapah, Kurnool, etc., 
and Morari Rao, the Maratha ruler of Gooty, were also at this time 
feudatories of the Nizam's. Towards the middle of the eighteenth 
century, Mysore was subjected to constant invasions by the 
Marathas, or by the Hyderabad forces, and sometimes by the two 
in conjunction. 

Haidar All was born near Kolar in 1/22, the son of a petty 
official of the Mysore State. After serving temporarily with the 
Nawab of Arcot he took military service under Nanja Raj, a 
minister of Mysore, who practically ruled the State although there 



INTRODUCTION 

was still a nominal Raja ; he gradually rose in favour and after 
achieving some distinction in campaigns during 1749 and 1751 was 
appointed military governor of Dindigul in 1755, the first important 
stage in his career. Promoted to the chief command against the 
Marathas in 1759, who before long withdrew from Mysore territory, 
Haidar rose still further in authority and was enabled to supplant 
Nanja Raj who had been virtual ruler for twenty years. Further 
trouble with the Marathas arose two years later, but this was 
successfully overcome and he took possession of several small 
States, including Chitalclrug, which adjoined Mysore, a period of 
annexation which in 1763 culminated in the capture of the import- 
ant State of Bednur, and this Haidar always regarded as having laid 
the foundation of his rise to greater power. The town of BednQr, or 
Nagar as he termed it, became his capital and here for the first 
time he assumed the sovereign right of striking coins. He now 
succeeded in making terms with the Nizam, but was unable to 
appease the Marathas, who only concluded peace when all the 
places previously taken from them had been restored and a large 
indemnity paid. In 1766 Malabar was taken by conquest and the 
Rajas of Cochin and Palghat capitulated. In the same year Chikka 
Krishna Raja, the nominal ruler of Mysore, died, and although his 
son succeeded him, Haidar assumed entire control of the State. 

In 1767 the Marathas again invaded Mysore, and in the same 
year the British in alliance with the Nizam's forces took the field in 
what is known as the First Mysore War. During this campaign, in 
which Haidar showed great military ability, he was able in April 
1769 to dictate terms to the British, practically at the very gates of 
Madras. Further trouble arose with the Marathas in 1772, with 
disastrous results, and once more he was forced to conclude a treaty 
restoring territory and to pay a large monetary compensation. 
About this time the nominal Raja of Mysore was strangled, and as 
his brother who succeeded him died soon after without an heir, 
a child was selected by Haidar as a representative, at any rate in 
name, of the ruling family. In 1773 Coorg was captured, a moun- 
tainous province adjoining Malabar, and the latter district which 
had broken out into revolt was soon after forced to submit. Three 
years later several of the smaller States bordering on Mysore, 
including Bellary and Gooty were recaptured, and owing to the 
defeat of the combined armies of the Marathas and the Nizam, 
with whom he was once more at war, he was able to take posses- 
sion of all the Maratha territory south of the River Kistna and also 
of the Cuddapah district. 

The year 1780 saw the commencement of the Second Mysore 
War, in which Haidar All with promised assistance from his former 
foes, the Marathas and the Nizam, which, however, never matured, 
and the active co-operation of the French then at war with 
England, formed a very powerful combination against the British 
forces in India. In that year he advanced with a large army 
towards the east coast and actually arrived within a few miles of 
Madras, but after some initial success he was eventually defeated 
by Sir Eyre Coote at Porto Novo in July 1781, and later at Ami. 
idar died in camp near Chittoor in the North Arcot district, 
while his army was returning to Mysore, on 7th December 1782, 
or the first day of the Hijrl year 1197. His body was taken to 
bermgapatam and buried there in state. 



INTRODUCTION ix 

Haidar All owed his success to great natural ability, and more 
particularly to ability in war which often reached the heights of 
genius. He was wholly illiterate and unable either to read or to 
write, his signature never getting beyond the stage of the initial 
letter of his name, which is so familiar on his own gold coins and 
on the gold and silver coins of his son. He is said to have treated 
his subjects fairly, to have administered justice impartially and to 
have encouraged the arts of peace ; but on the other hand he was 
frequently guilty of the grossest cruelty. Bowring (Haidar Al* 
and Tipu Sultan, Rulers of India, p. 113) thus refers to him: 
" Whatever defects may be justly attributed to Haidar as a ruler, 
or in his private life, he was a bold, an original, and an enter- 
prising commander, skilful in tactics and fertile in resources, full 
of energy, and never desponding in defeat. Notwithstanding the 
severity of his internal rule, and the terror which he inspired, his 
name is always mentioned in Mysore with respect, if not with 
admiration. While the cruelties which he sometimes practised are 
forgotten, his prowess and success have an abiding place in the 
memory of the people." 

Tipu Sultan who was born at Devanhalli, Mysore State, in 
*753> commenced his reign while engaged in war with the British 
and it may be added terminated it in like manner seventeen 
years later. The Second Mysore War ended early in 1/84, one of 
the contributing causes being the conclusion of peace between 
France and England in the previous year; the peace conditions 
with Tipu included the restitution of prisoners on both sides and 
the restoration of all conquered territory. In 1783 Bednur or 
Nagar, which had been taken by General Matthews in January, 
was recaptured by Tipu three months later, and he was enthroned 
here with great ceremony on the 4th of May, a day recorded on 
many of his gold and silver coins, and by a strange coincidence also 
the anniversary of his death. About this time great cruelties 
were perpetrated by Tipu on the west coast and in Coorg, where 
large numbers of Hindus and Christians were forcibly converted 
to Islam. Throughout his reign he showed intense zeal in the 
propagation of his religion, coupled with a great deal of narrow- 
minded bigotry, in these respects reversing the general policy of 
his father who always exhibited toleration in religious matters. 

In 1786 the combined forces of the Marathas and the Nizam 
declared war, and peace was only concluded in the following year 
on Tipu restoring a number of forts which he had previously 
captured and paying a considerable indemnity. On his return to 
Seringapatam which was now the capital, he gave orders for the 
demolition of the old town of Mysore, in order to destroy the 
chief evidence of the deposed Hindu Rajas, and the new fort 
Nazarbar was erected in its immediate vicinity. In 1788 he visited 
Calicut, and for reasons similar to those which actuated him in the 
destruction of Mysore, arranged for the demolition of the capital 
of Malabar and the transfer of his government from Calicut to 
Feroke. During this period, while his power was at its zenith, 
he assumed the title of Badshah or King and dispatched ambas- 
sadors to Constantinople and Paris, chiefly with the object of 
securing co-operation against the English, but without success. 
The State of Travancore, on the southern part of the Malabar 
Coast, which had never been conquered by Haidar All, was 



x INTRODUCTION 

invaded by Tlpu at the end of 1789, and as the Raja of the State 
was an ally of the British, war once more became inevitable. 

In the Third Mysore War, which commenced in 1790, united 
action was taken against Tlpu by the British, the Marathas and 
the Nizam. The British army under Lord Cornwallis took Banga- 
lore in March 1791 and the capital Seringapatam in February 
1792. By the treaty, which Tlpu was forced to conclude, Malabar, 
Coorg, Dindigul and part of the Carnatic, were ceded to England, 
the Marathas received the territory between the river Kistna and 
its southern tributary the Tungabhadra, while the Nizam had 
certain former possessions restored, including the Cuddapah 
district ; in addition a very heavy indemnity was levied. 

During the remaining years of his reign Tlpu did everything 
in his power to bring about the overthrow of the British power in 
India, and once more made an unsuccessful attempt to obtain 
the assistance of the French, sending for this purpose a special 
embassy to Mauritius. This and other trouble led to the Fourth 
and last Mysore War, in which, after a short campaign, Seringa- 
patam fell to the assault of the British army under General Harris 
on 4th May 1799, and Tlpu Sultan. was amongst the slain. After 
Tlpu's death portions of his dominions were divided among the 
allies, and the Hindu Raj of Mysore was restored in the person 
of Krishna Raja Wodeyar, then a child of six years. 

It is difficult to form an accurate estimate of the character of 
Tlpu Sultan, because the views of contemporary writers, whether 
English or Muhammadan, are obviously biassed. His cruelty 
and religious bigotry are undoubted, and he perpetrated many 
atrocities in the name of religion ; he has been justly censured for 
his excesses in war, though they perhaps never exceeded a 
standard set elsewhere in more modern times. That he was a 
brave man cannot be doubted, and while on several occasions he 
showed considerable military ability, he fell far short of his father 
in this respect. Unlike Haidar he was a man of education and the 
changes which he introduced into the calendar, the names of his 
forts, of civil and military offices, and of weights and measures, 
certainly display a considerable amount of ingenuity, though by 
more than one writer they have been held to afford evidence of his 
insanity. Nowhere else is Tlpu's love of innovation better seen 
than in his coinage. It has been left to an English writer of 
fiction to give, in the words of one of his characters, the most 
favourable account of Tlpu Sultan that I have been able to 
discover, and while no doubt reproducing contemporary Muham- 
madan opinion, it is perhaps nearer the truth than are some of 
the accounts which have been written in an entirely opposite 
direction. This imperfect notice may fittingly conclude with the 
extract in question : 

" He was a great man such an one as Hind will never see 
again. He had great ambition, wonderful ability, perseverance, 
and the art of leading men's hearts more than they were aware of, 
or cared to acknowledge ; he had patient application, and nothing 
was done without his sanction, even to the meanest affairs, and the 
business of his dominions was vast. You will allow he was brave, 
and died like a soldier. He was kind and considerate to his 
servants, and a steady friend to those he loved. Mashalla ! he was 
a great man." Meadows Taylor, Tippoo Sultaun, p. 450. 



COINS OF HAIDAR ALL 

It was not till after the capture of Nagar or Bednur, in 1763, 
that Haidar felt himself sufficiently established in. the government 
of Mysore to undertake the sovereign right of coinage. He did 
so, however, with extreme caution, for none of his coins exhibits 
more than the initial letter of his name, and in associating it with 
Hindu deities he showed remarkable toleration on the part of a 
Muhammadan; but no doubt he felt it necessary to avoid giving 
offence to the Hindu population of Mysore which far exceeded his 
co-reiigionists in number. 

His earliest coin, the so-called Bahadurl pagoda, which judging 
from its comparative abundance at the present day must have 
had an extensive circulation, was copied from the pagoda struck 
in the sixteenth century by Sadasiva Nayak, the first Raja of 
Ikkeri or Bednur, who in turn imitated the pagoda of Sadasivaraya 
of Vijayanagara (Cf. Hultzsch, Ind. Antig., vol. XX, p. 307, 1891). 
The rare haJf-pagoda (No. 6 of the catalogue), referred to briefly 
by Marsden and so far as I know not chronicled since, in place 
of Siva and Parvati has a seated figure of Vishnu, and was no 
doubt copied from the ' Durga ' pagoda, coined according to Elliot 
by the Bedar Poligar of Chitaldrug, which again followed a 
Vijayanagara model in the gold coins of Krishnaraya. The " new 
Muhammad Shahi " page da struck at Gooty (No. 3), was simply 
a copy of an earlier Mughal pagoda of the same mint which was 
first coined during the reign of Muhamma'd Shah, and was reissued 
later by Morari Rao, the Maratha chief who occupied Gooty 
before Haidar. Similar Mughal pagodas were issued at Jmtiyaz- 
garh (Adoni in the Bellary district), Tadpatri (/inantapQr district) 
and Ganjikotah (Gandikota in the Cuddapah district), originally 
in the reign of Farrukh-Siyar. The second of the Gooty pagodas 
(No. 4) is dated 1198, and was, therefore, struck in the second 
year of the reign of Tlpu Sultan, who was in all probability 
unaware of its existence. I have, for convenience, placed it beside 
the other Gooty pagoda, although it cannot be regarded as a coin 
of Haidar All. 

Two types of gold fanam are met with, the first resembling 
the Bahadur! pagoda and half-pagoda, the second dated. Among 
the latter is a coin struck at Calicut dated Il66 (1752-53 A.D.), an 
impossible date for this town which did not fall into Haidars 
hands till 1766 ; the date is obviously blundered and it is possible 
that this fanam was really issued by Tlpu Sultan. Tufnell and 
other writers have referred to coins weighing three grains or even 
less, which thev regard as half-fanams, but I am inclined to think 
that these, andsimilar coins of Tlpu, are really small-sized fanams, 
with the same amount of gold as the ordinary fanams which owe 
their larger size to a greater amount of alloy. 

The copper paisas with elephant obverse, struck at Seringa- 
patam in the last two years of Haidar's reign, are of considerable 
interest, as they form the model on which the extensive series of 
copper coins issued by his son was based. 



Under, the heading " Doubtful copper coins of Haidar All " are 
included three distinct series, all worthy of special mention. The 
first consists of three roughly executed and undated paisas, two 
of which were struck at Bellary and the third at Seringapatam ; 
they may possibly have been issued by Tipu, although their 
extreme roughness seems to indicate otherwise. Attention may 
be drawn to the two ways in which the word Bellary is spelt, and 
it may be stated that no other coins of this mint are known. The 
coins with Kanarese numerals are evidently a reissue of the 
similar coins struck by one of the Mysore Rajas before the 
Muhammadan usurpation, which from their great abundance at 
the present day had evidently a very extensive circulation. The 
original coins, which are of two sizes, weighing approximately 46 
grains and 23 grains, bear on the obverse Kanarese numerals from 
I to 33 according to Major Jackson, though personally I have 
not met with a number higher than 32. The significance of these 
numerals is unknown, but the opinion has been expressed that 
they may indicate the years of a reign, and but for the awk- 
ward exception just referred to I would have felt inclined 
to attribute them to Chikka Deva (16721704), or to Krishna 
Raja Wodeyar (17341766). The coins, now catalogued for 
the first time, bear in addition to the Kanarese numerals, which 
possibly indicate regnal years, the Arabic numeral T repeated, 
which is perhaps an indication of value. On the chequered 

reverse Haidar's initial *C is found, a fact which does not enable 
us to assign the coins definitely either to the father or the son, 
but inasmuch as Tipu had a very extensive copper coinage of his 
own, it seems more likely that these insignificant pieces were issued 
by his father, to whose general policy of copying earlier types 
they also conform. We finally come to the " tiger and battle-axe " 
coins which were first attributed to Mysore by Moor, and were 
considered by Marsden to be possibly pattern pieces of Tipu 
Sultan that never came into general use. I have catalogued them 
as issues of Haidar, but there is perhaps just as great probability 
that they originated with Tipu, to wJiose half-paisas, andquarter- 
paisas they on the whole conform both in weight and size* ; their 
border also is identical with that of many of Tlpu's copper coins. 
I have never met with a specimen in Mysore, and most of those 
now found come from Malabar, leading to the suspicion that they 
may have formed a temporary issue for Calicut. 

As already indicated the Bahadurl pagoda is still a common 
Com, while the corresponding half-pagoda is rare, as are also the 
Gooty pagodas. The half-pagoda with a seated figure of Vishnu 
is also a rare coin, and I only know of two other specimens than 
that referred to by Marsden ; there was probably a pagoda of 
similar type, though no examples are known to numismatists. The 
Bahadun fanams are not rare, but the other gold fanams are seldom 
Of the two dated paisas, the one issued in IIC5 is not 
uncommon, while the later one is very rare. The thick coarse 
paisa struck at Seringapatam is not rare, nor is the Bellary paisa 

u ? he r sma . llest "J ion and battle-axe " coin is only about half the weight of Tipu's 
eighth of a paisa, and it was possibly intended to represent a sixteenth of a paisa. 



with the elephant to right, but the one with the elephant to left is 
distinctly rare. None of the small copper coins with Kanarese 
numerals and Haidar's initial is commonly met with, and clear 
examples showing more than a small part of the die are rare. The 
" tiger and battle-axe " coins are all rare and particularly those of 
the smallest size. 



Date. 



HAIDAR ALL 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



PAGODA. 



AI 

I 

M 



Haidar's initial C 
granulated field. 
Weight 51*5 grs. 
Pi. I. 



on a Siva seated with Parvati 
on his left knee ; in one 
of the God's right hands 
a trisul and in one of 
the left a deer. 



As on No. I, but the initial 
letter reversed O 



1194 



As on No. I, 



In a dotted circle. 
W. 41 grs. 
PL I. 



4 1198 As on No. 3, but date I f ^ A 



On a field ornamented 
with four-dotted ro- 
settes. 

The letter ( -^ is not 
visible in the only 
example I have seen. 

As on No. 3. 



^ 

Although this coin was actually struck during the 
reign of Tlpu I have preferred to keep it here, as it is 
a direct continuation of a peculiar issue of Haidar. 

HALF-PAGODA. 



; on his 
a chakra 



5 - 


As on No. I. 
W. 26*5 grs. 


Pi. I. 


As on No. I 


6 
M 


As on No. I. 
W. 26 grs. 


PI. I. 


Vishnu ses 
right sid 
(discus) a 
a sankha ( 




FANAM. 


*(- 


As on No. I. 
W. 5-5 grs. 


Pi. I. 


As on No. I 



HAIDAR ALlcont. 



1 , Date - 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



FAN AM cont. 



8 1189 Haidar's initial 
M 



10 



On a plain field. On a plain field. 

In a dotted circle. ! In a dotted circle. 

W. 27 grs. PL I. 



9 IIQ6 As on No. 8. 



Haidar's initial 
plain field. 



on a 



As on No. 8, but date 
\\\\ 



In a lined circle with a row | Traces of a lined circle, 
of dots. 

W. 5-5 grs. PI. I- 

The elate ' ' * * is possibly an error for ' M 1 or f M *> 
if the latter date was the one intended the coin was 
struck by Tlpii Sultan. 



II 

M 



12 

M 



PAISA. 

1195 Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail. 
W. 191*5 grs. 
183-2 grs. 
PL I. 



1196 As on No. II. 

W. 187 grs. 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

As on No. II, but date 
f Ml 



i* 3 



DOUBTFUL COINS OF HAIDAR ALL 
PAISA. 



Elephant advancing to 

right with uplifted tail. 

W. 1877 grs. 

191*5 grs. 
20I'5 grs. 
PL I. 



U >*> 

\ On a field ornamented 

with dotted rosettes. 
In a lined circle. 



9 



HAIDAR XLlconi. 



J 

| Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



14 
M 



15 
M 



DOUBTFUL COINS OF HAIDAR ALi 

PAlSAcont. 



Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail. 
W. 201 grs. 
PI. I. 



Elephant advancing to right 

with uplifted tail. 
Traces of a lined circle. 
W. 194*5 grs. 
PI. I. 



On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a lined circle. 



On a field ornamented 

with dotted rosettes. 
Traces of a lined circle. 



COINS WITH KANARESE NUMERALS. 



16 ... | Arabic numerals 
with above them 
Kanarese numeral 
(9 reversed). 
In a dotted circle. 
W. 21*8 grs. 
24 grs. 



r r i Double cross-lines with 

the , the letter "C in one or 
F - ! more of the interspaces. 



Arabic numerals T f r . As on No. 16, with dotted 
with a dot on either side \ rosettes in the other 
of each: both above and! interspaces, 
below them the Kanarese 1 
numerals oo (10). 



In a dotted circle. 
W. 20*5 grs. 
22*0 grs. 
22-5 grs. PI. 



I. 



In some examples the dots at the sides of the Arabic 
numerals are missing. The Kanarese numerals may 
be found inverted in either position. 



HAIDAR AlAcont. 



Date 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



COINS WITH KANARESE NUMERALS cont. 



18 



19 I 

20 
21 



22 
M 



23 
M 



25 



As on No. 17, but Kanarese ! As on No. 17. 
numerals oo (n), which | 

in the upper position are 
inverted. 

W. 22*0 grs. 
23'5 grs. 

As on No. 18, but Kanarese 
numerals o_> (12). 



W. 19*0 grs. 
24*5 grs. 

As on No. 18, but Kanarese 
numerals r>3 (13). 

As on No. 18, but Kanarese 
numerals otf (14). 

W. 20*0 grs. 
20'8 grs. 

TIGER AND BATTLE-AXE COINS. 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



HALF-PAISA. 

A tiger with uplifted tail 
standing to right, its face 
turned towards the spect- 
ator. 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 

W. 93*5 grs. PI. I. 



A battle-axe with edge to 



left 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



QUARTER-PAISA. 



! As on No. 22. 

W. 39*0 grs. 

43-5 grs. PI. I. 

As on No. 22. 



As on No. 22. 



A battle-axe with edge to 

right. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 



EIGHTH-PAISA. 

As on No- 22. i As on No. 22. 

W. 11*2 grs. PI. I. 



COINS OF TfPU SULTAN. 

The coins of Tlpu Sultan exist in far greater variety and 
number than those of his father. They were issued in gold, silver 
and copper, from no fewer than twelve different mints, and some of 
them at least appeared in every one of the seventeen years of his 
reign. But few mint-names occur on Haidar's coins and as far as 
is known his issues were confined to gold and copper. 

THE MINTS. 

In the detailed catalogue Tlpu's mints are arranged in the 
following order : 

(1) Pattan (Seringapatam). 

(2) Nagar. 

(3) Faiz Hisar (Gooty). 

(4) Bengalur (Bangalore). 

(5) Farrukh-yab Hisar (Chitaldrug). 

(6) Kallkut (Calicut). 

(7) Farrukhl (Feroke). 

(8) Salamabad (Satyamangalam). 

(9) Khaliqabad (Dindigul). 

(10) Zafarabad (Gurramkonda). 

(11) Khwurshed-sawad (Dharwar). 

(12) Nazarbar (Mysore). 

It will be seen from this list that most of the mint-towns, which 
were selected on account of their military or political importance, 
bear fanciful names specially invented for them by Tlpu, and that 
only Nagar, Bangalore, Calicut and Feroke, are recognizable on 
the coins. One of the mints appears under two designations, viz., 
its own proper name Dharwar and the fanciful one Khwurshed- 
sawad. 

Moor (Narrative of the Operations of Little's Detachment, 
p. 476, pi. II, fig. 6) describes and figures a paisa dated 1217, on 
which the mint-town is read Benazir, jt&> ^ 'the incompar- 
able', a name given by Tlpu to Hole Honnur in the Shimoga 
district of Mysore. This coin has not been rediscovered, and as 
there is some doubt whether the figure was actually taken from a 
coin I have omitted the mint from the catalogue. The section of 
Moor's work dealing with coins was prepared in a hurry and 
contains not a few inaccuracies, hence in the absence of further 
evidence the above course is probably the best one to adopt. 

In the first year of his reign Tlpu issued but few coins and these 
only from the Seringapatam and Nagar mints. In the fifth regnal 
year the number of mints was increased to eight, and in the 
following year when TlpQ may be said to have been at the summit 
of his power, the only mint not in operation was Calicut which had 
been destroyed in the previous year and its place taken by Feroke. 
During the seventh and eighth years a considerable number of 



mints still issued coins, but in the ninth year there is a sudden 
falling off, as a result of the military difficulties in which Tlpu 
found himself before the decisive siege of Bangalore in 1792.' By 
the treaty which followed the capture of that city Tlpu lost the half 
of his dominions, and from this time onwards Calicut, Feroke, 
Dindigul, Gurramkonda and Dharwar ceased to be in his posses- 
sion. From the tenth year to the end of the reign coins were only 
issued from the Seringapatam, Nagar and Gooty mints, and from 
the last of these only in copper. In the seventeenth or last year of 
the reign which commenced less than a month before the death of 
Tlpu, so far as is known only two varieties of copper coin were 
struck, both at the Nagar mint. With but few exceptions and 
these confined to gold and silver issues, the name of the mint 
regularly occurs on the coins of Tlpu Sultan. 

Following the example of Haidar All, Tlpu has not recorded 
his own name on any of his coins, though the initial letter of his 
father's name ^ is frequently met with on the gold and silver 
issues. It is equally noteworthy that the name of the ruling 
Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II, to whom Tlpa at least nominally 
owed allegiance, is conspicuous by its absence, and it is said that 
an offering of the coins which he injudiciously or insolently made 
evoked great resentment from the Emperor on account of this 
omission. 



THE DATES ON THE COINS. 

The coins issued during the first four years of Tipu's reign bear 
the Hijri date, the numerals as usual reading from left to right, 
while those from the fifth year to the end of the reign are dated in 
accordance with Tlpu's special Mauludi era, and the figures read 
from right to left. The coins of the fourth year are dated I T * 4 

(1200 A.H.), while those of the fifth year bear the date tiff 

(1215 A.M.), and it appears probable that the commencement of a 
new century influenced Tlpu in making the change at this time. 
The Hijri years are lunar years of twelve lunar months each, while 
those of the Mauludi system, which as the name indicates dates 
from the birth and not from the flight of the Prophet, are luni-solar 
years of twelve lunar months, with an intercalated or adhika month 
added at certain intervals. Tlpu in founding his new calendar, as 
was pointed out by Kirkpatrick in l8ll, simply adopted the Hindu 
calendar in common use in Mysore, which had a cycle of sixty 
years, and substituted Arabic names for the Hindu ones assigned 
to the cyclic years and months. 

The following extract is taken from an article on the subject by 
the present writer [Journ., As. Soc., Bengal (New Seriesj, Vol. X, 
1914] : " Several writers puzzled by the difference of fourteen years 
between the two systems at the time the new one was introduced, 
have supposed that the term Mauludi was used in a figurative sense, 
and that the era originated in the commencement of Muhammad's 
mission, or had reference to the -time when he first announced 
himself as the Messenger of God. The true explanation was, 
however, furnished by Marsden (Numismata Orientalia, Part II, 
p. /or, 1825) \vho pointed out, that if the year of the Prophet's birth 

2 



10 

in the Christian reckoning be subtracted from the Christian year in 
which the innovation was introduced, the result is 1215. For this 
purpose Marsden takes the date of Muhammad's birth as 571 A.D., 
and the first year of the new era as 1786 A.D. (1786571 = 1215) ; 
but as we shall see, Tipu Sultan, for some unexplained reason, 
appears to have assumed that Muhammad was born in 572 A.D., as 
the first year of the new era certainly commenced in 1787 A.D. 
The correct formula is, therefore, 1787 572 = 1215. 

All writers on the subject since the time of Marsden have, so far 
as 1 know, without a single exception, assumed, not unnaturally, 
that because the fourth regnal year terminated in 1786 A.D., the 
year 1215 A.M., also commenced in the same year, but this, as I 
shall proceed to show, is an error and the year 1215 really com- 
menced in 1787. In certain of TlpQ's letters referred to in 
Kirkpatrick's Select Letters of Tippoo Sultan (1811), Beatson's View of 
the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultan (1800), and 
Wood's Review of the War in Mysore (1800), the complete MauludT 
date, and the corresponding Hijn one, were both noted at the time 
the letter was written. At my instance these dates have been 
examined by the Hon'ble Diwan Bahadur L. D. Swamikannu 
Pillai, M.A., LL.B., author of Indian Chronology (Madras, 1911), and a 
well-known authority on the subject. He reports that they com- 
pletely establish the facts that the months of Tlpu's new system 
were Indian lunar months, that the days of the month were simply 
tithis continuously numbered from one to thirty, the fortnights 
being omitted, and further that Tlpu's extra months were without 
a single exception the Indian adhika months. Mr. Swamikannu 
Pillai finds that the MauludT year began regularly at the same time 
as the Indian luni-solar year, i.e., on Chaitra sukla pratipada, or 
the first tithi of the bright fortnight of Chaitra, and that the serial 
numbers of Tlpu's cyclic years, recorded on many of his gold and 
silver coins, are exactly the same as those of the South Indian 
cyclic years." 

Although an examination of the dates on these letters shows 
clearly that the Mauliidl year 1215 corresponds to 1787-88, yet 
Marsden, who has been followed by all later writers, makes it 
commence in 1786, and similarly antedates by one year all the 
other regnal years of Tlpu Sultan, with but one exception. This 
exception is the last year of the reign 1227, and concerning the 
Nagar paisa bearing this date he writes (op. cit. p. 724) : " This 
is probably the latest specimen of his coinage that has been 
preserved and must have been struck within about a month of his 
death; the year 1227 of his era having begun on the 6th of April 
1799, and the storming of Seringapatam, on which occasion he 
fell, having happened on the 4th of May of that year, being the 
anniversary of his accession." So firmly, however, had the mistaken 
dates become established, that the late Major Tufnell, in his 
Catalogue of Mysore Coins in the Collection of the Government Museum, 
Bangalore (1889), attempts to show that Marsden is wrong and that 
the year 1227 corresponds to 1798. 

While the fifth regnal year 1215 A.M. commenced on 20th March 
1787, the first day of the Indian luni-solar year which was numbered 
41 both in the Indian and in Tlpa's calendar, the fourth regnal year 
1200 A.H. terminated on 23rd October 1786, On making the 



ti 

change Tlpu was, therefore, forced to allow a period of nearly five 
months to elapse between the end of the last Hijri year and the 
beginning of the first Manludi one. If coins were struck during 
this transitional period they may have been dated 1215 in antici- 
pation of the new era, or it is possible that the coins of 1201 from 
the Seringapatam, Nagar and ChitaldrQg mints were issued at 
this time. It is, however, just as likely that the latter coins were 
dated in error, the die-engraver being unaware of the introduction 
of the new era. On page 28 will be found a table showing the date 
according to the Christian reckoning of the commencement of each 
year of Tlpu Sultan's reign. 

As the result no doubt of unfamiliarity with the Arabic numerals 
on the part of South Indian die-engravers, numerous errors occur 
in the dates of the coins, more particularly of the copper ones. On 
the coins of 1215 A.M., the date was intended to be written a f f f 
but in a good many cases it is f r f a, as in the older arrangement, 
and some instances occur of a similar mistake in 1216 and later 
years. In a few coins the date recorded is a mixture of the two 
arrangements, e.g.,r T I f or 4 r T f (vide No. 292), while errors due 
to one or more numerals being reversed are not uncommon, such as 
f n* for f rr 4 , written from left to right in error (No. 118), and 

~inf for rrr t (No. 332). 



THE NAMES OF* THE CYCLIC YEARS. 

In arriving at the names of the cyclic years which are found on 
certain of his gold and silver coins, * Tlpu resorted to two systems 
in which a certain numerical value is assigned to the letters of the 
Arabic alphabet. The older of these systems, in use long before 

Tlpu's time, termed the abjad, *&\ a combination of the letters 

I <--> < ^, contained twenty-two different numbers, nine units, nine 
tens and the first four hundreds, which were consecutively denoted 
by the twenty-two Arabic letters that correspond to those of the 
Hebrew alphabet. As Arabic contains six letters which are not 
found in the Hebrew alphabet, the last five hundreds and the 
number one thousand were consecutively assigned to these letters. 
Tip u being dissatisfied with the older arrangement, introduced at 
the same time as his new Mauliidi era the system which is known 

as abtath, C^w! from the first four letters of the Arabic alphabet 
I <__^ CL? ui->, a system in which the same twenty-eight numbers are 
assigned consecutively to the twenty-eight letters of the Arabic 
alphabet. These systems of cyclic years were first elucidated by 
Kirkpatrick and Marsclen, but more recently a very clear account, 
from which the foregoing details are taken, has appeared in the 
work of Taylor. A reference to any of these writers will show 
how the numerical value of each cyclic year-name is arrived at. 
The following table gives the names of the cyclic years for the 



* The coins on which they occur are the ahmadi, sadlqi, double-rupee, rupee and 
half-rupee, of the Seringapatam, Nagar, Calicut and Dharwar mints. 



12 




different years of Tlpu's reign, though only those marked with an 
asterisk are actually known on coins : 



Regnal Cyclic 
year. year. 


Name of cyclic year. 




1 37 ^$j zaki, pure. 


2 


3& LJj' * azal, beginn'ngless eternity. 


3 39 T^* * falau t spleadour. 


4 


40 Jj * ^/a^z/, the sign Aquarius. 


5 


41 


i-& * ^^5, a king. 


6 


*2 


|.U * ^ara, fragrant. 


7 


43 


U^ >| -* * sarab, a mirage. 


8 


44 


U-^j * ^Az/5, winter. 


9 


45 j ^~^J') * za & ar J a d t a topaz. 


10 


46 


.afta * sa/nir, dawn. 


ii 

12 


47 

48 


j5*\^ sah.ir, a magician. 
jj*lj *' ras iMi, firm. 


13. 


4.9 


J-/I # ^/^arf, joyful. 


14 


50 


v^i-^-> )yS # fiirasat, a guard. 


15 


5r 


J *** jas, concord. 


16 


52 


L-;|Ol^ shadab, moist. 


17 


53 


^y^V bar is h, rain. 



.NOTE. The first four regnal years follow the Abjad and the remainder the Abtath 
system. 

Although the later nomenclature did not come into regular use till the fifth year, 
abtath terms had been invented for the earlier years, and the first regnal year is recorded 
on the coins as ~ sakh, glass beads, when the date of accession is given. 



THE NAMES OF THE MONTHS. 

Two systems of nomenclature were adopted by Tlpu for the 
twelve months of the year. The first, in which the names follow 
the abjad system, was in use during the first four years of the reign ; 
while the, second, which follows the abtath system, came into force 
in the fifth regnal year, along with the Mauludi system of dating the 
coins. For details as to the two sets of month-names the reader is 
referred to the works of Kirkpatrick, Marsden and Taylor. On 
many of Tlpu's ahmadls, sadlqls, double-rupees, rupees and 



13 

half-rupees, struck after the introduction of the Mauludl era, the 
following words are found on the reverse : 



' date of accession : the year Sakh, third of Bahar!.' 

Baharl is the name of the second month of the year in both 

systems, and Sakh, g- glass beads, in the abtath reckoning, has 
the numerical value 37. These coins, therefore, record the fact 
that TlpQ Sultan ascended the throne on the third day of the 
second month of the thirty-seventh cyclic year. This year 
commenced on the 2nd of April 1783, and the date of Tlpu's 
enthronement therefore corresponds to the 4th May 1783, a period 
in which, as Marsden points out, ' he was flushed with the victory 
recently obtained over a British Army, on the Malabar coast.' 
Curiously enough this day was also the one on which Tlpu died 
sixteen years later. 

In several cases two different regnal years are found on coins 
bearing the same date. For example two rupees (Nos. 53 and 54) 
bear the date 1216, while one purports to be of the sixth regnal 
year and the other of the seventh. The difference is simply due to 
the fact that the first was struck before the anniversary of Tlpu's 
accession on 4th May in the year 1216 which commenced on 7th 
April 1788, while the other appeared between 4th May 1788 and 
the end of the year 1216 on 26th March 1789. A double-rupee 

recorded by Weyl (No. 42), bears the date 1198, the cyclic year jW- 
and the regnal year 3 ; in this case the date is an error for 1199. 

THE LETTER YEARS. 

The copper coins issued from the Seringapatam, Nagar and 
Gooty mints during the last four years of Tlpu's reign, and no other 
mints were in operation during these years, bear respectively the 
first four letters of the Arabic alphabet. The coins of 1224 carry 

tffc letter I, those of 1225 the letter S->, of 1226 the letter <^> 

and of 1227 the letter <-i> The letter is placed above the elephant 
on the obverse, while the date occurs on the reverse and occasion- 
ally on the obverse as well. In several coins of the Gooty or Faiz 
Hisar mint, the letter and date do not correspond, and it seems 
safest to suppose that the former is correct ; in a strangely 

blundered quarter-paisa of this mint, bearing the letter <-r->, different 
dates are found on the two surfaces and neither of them agrees 
with the letter. 

THE NAMES OF THE COINS. 

* Some time after the introduction of the Mauludl era Tlpu Sultan 
invented names for his coins, on the reverse of which they are 
usually found, and we owe to Dr. E. Hultzsch (hid. Antiq., vol. 
XVIII, p. 313, 1889) the first detailed explanation of these names. 
The gold and silver coins are called after Muhammadan saints, 
Khalifas in the former coins and Imams in the latter, while the 



14 

copper coins, with the single exception of the first name for the 
double-paisa, which is that of a Khalifa, bear the Arabic or Persian 
names of stars. The coins and their titles are as follows : 



The four-pagoda piece or ahmadt, 
Ahmad, the ' most praised ' is one of the names of the Prophet 
himself, 

The double-pagoda vr sadtq'i, ofl j ^ 

Sadiq, 'just,' is derived from Abu Bakr SadTq, the first Khalifa. 

The pagoda or faniqi, <^)j^ 

Fdriiq, ' timid,' comes from Omar FarQq, the name of the second 
Khalifa. 

The double-rupee or haidtiri, -5j^^ 

Haidar, ' a lion,' the designation of All, who was both the fourth 
Khalifa and the first Imam. Tipu's father is also commemorated 
in the name. 

The rupee or imaml, _^U1 

This name which is derived from the word Imam, l leader,' is 
no doubt intended to stand for the twelve Imams. 



The half-rupee or dbidi, 

This name is derived from All Zain al Abidln, the fourth of the 
twelve Imams. 

The quarter-rupee or baqiri, <J?j*\ 

The name of this coin is taken from Muhammad al Baqir, 
Muhammad the Great, the fifth Imam. 

The one-eighth rupee or jafari -5/**^ 

This name is derived from that of Jafar al Sadiq, Jafar the Just, 
the sixth Imam. 

The one-sixteenth rupee or kaziml, 



This name commemorates Masa al Kazim, Musa the Silent, the 
seventh Imam. 

The one-thirty-second rupee or khisri, <- 



The name of this, the smallest of the silver coins, is derived 
from Al Khizr, 'the green one,' a saint who is said to have 
drunk of the fountain of life and in consequence to be still alive. 

The double-paisa, othmani JUlr, O r mushtari, iJ&&~* 
The largest of the copper coins bears two names; the first, 
which was in use from I2l8 up to 1221, commemorates Othman the 
third Khalifa, while the second, which first came into use in the 
year 1221 and was continued in all the later years during which 
double-paisas were struck, is derived from al mushtari, the Arabic 
name of the planet Jupiter. 

The paisa or zohra, 



15 

This term is simply the Persian name of the planet Venus. 
The paisas struck at Seringapatam, with one exception (No. I2i) 
and those of Gooty show the above or Persian spelling of the word, 
while those of the Nagar mint and the exception just referred 

to bear the designation zohra *j -the Hindustani spelling. 



The half-paisa or bahnim, 

This is the Persian name of the planet Mars. 

The quarter-paisa or akhtar, j^\ 

This is the Persian word for a star. 

The one-eighth paisa or qutb, u-Jaj> 

This is the Arabic name of the Pole Star. 

The only one of Tipu's coins on which no name is ever recorded 
is the gold fanam, and the omission can hardly be due to the 
small size of the coin, for the designation khizn appears on the 
still smaller silver half-anna. These special coin-names first 
appear on the gold and silver coins on or after the year 1216, while 
in the case of the copper coins, with the exception of the clouble- 
paisa, which bears the designation othmanT as early as I2l8, the 
names do not appear till 1221, and, as already remarked, the name 
of the double-paisa was then altered to mushtan. 

THE GOLD COINS. 

Of the four varieties of gold coin issued by Trpu Sultan, 
the ahmacll was struck at the Seringapatam and Nagar mints, 
while the sadlql is only known from the first of these. Judging 
from the very small number of these coins now procurable their 
issue cannot have been extensive ; on the other hand the pagodas 
and fanams, which conformed to the general South Indian gold 
currency, were evidently much more extensively coined. Pagodas 
were struck at Seringapatam, Nagar and Dharwar (including 
Khwurshed-sawad), while fanams, in addition to the three mints 
just mentioned, omitting Khwurshed-sawad, were also struck at 
Calicut, Feroke and Dindigul. Both Moor and Hawkes refer to 
a double gold muhr, which neither of these writers had seen, and 
the coin has not been recorded by anyone else; according to 
Hawkes it was known as an * emaumi.' 

AHMADT. 

This coin, which has an average weight of 21 1 grains, was 
probably intended to be the equivalent of four pagodas, as the 
normal weight of one of the latter coins is 52% grains. If, how- 
ever, the weight of 160 grains assigned by Jackson to an ahmadl 
dated 1198" (Coin Collecting in Mysore, p. 18) is correct, it may be 
that when the coin was first issued it was intended to correspond 



* Hawkes (Coinage of Mysore, p. 6) in referring to an ahmadl of the same year, states 
that ' it weighs about 212 grains of which nearly 182 are pure gold.' 



16 

to the muhr or gold rupee, which would weigh approximately 
175 grains. In any case the coin is frequently, if incorrectly, 
termed a gold muhr. Three variations in the inscriptions are met 
with, and for the first of these the following may be taken as a 
typical example : 

Reverse. 




^ ^f* ^ 
\J**^ C^J ^ 



|<]A u*)^ --^ Jj! 



^svjj> ^ Jj! JU 

Obv. The religion of Ahmad is illumined in the world by 
the victory of Haidar <^. Struck at Pattan, the (cyclic) year 
Azal (38), the Hijrl year 1198. 

Rev. He is the Sultan, the Unique, the Just.' The third of 
Baharl, the (cyclic) year Azal (38), the regnal year 2. 

The following is the arrangement in the second type: 
2. Obverse. Reverse. 



As in the first type, but cyclic 
year ^ and regnal year & 



^ 



li' 



trie 

f.*~ J " 

Obv. The religion of Ahmad is illumined in the world by 
the victory of Haidar ^. Struck at Pattan, the (cyclic) year 
Sha (41), the year 1215, Muhammad. 

Rev.- He is the Sultan, the Unique, the Just. The third of 
Baharl, the (cyclic) year Sha (41), the regnal year 5. 

In this case the name of the cyclic year occupies a line by 
itself on the obverse, and the word Muhammad is found at the end 
of the legend on the same surface. 



17 

The following is the arrangement in the third and last type 
3. Obverse. Reverse. 



l_ ?Jy-> JU ^ 

. Muhammad. The religion of Ahmad is illumined in 
the world by the victory of Haidar ^. An ahmadl struck at Pattan, 
the (cyclic) year Sarab (43), the (Mauludr) year 1217. 

Rev. He is the Sultan, the Unique, the Just. Date of accession 
the (cyclic) year Sakh (37), the third of Baharl. Regnal year 7. 

The name Muhammad now appears at the head of the obverse 
inscription and the denomination of the coin is also found on the 
same surface. Marsden remarks, with regard to the inclusion of 
the name of the Prophet, ' it seems intended to stop the murmur- 
ings of those to whom the exclusion of the hejrah could not fail to 
give occasion of scandal, and who might have begun to suspect 
their sovereign of heterodoxy.' The complete record of Tlpu's 
accession to the throne is now found on the reverse. 

The three types in regard to inscriptions given above are met 
with in the two larger gold coins, including the one just described, 
and in the three larger silver coins. While the third type occurs 
in all of these coins, the first type is only known in the ahmadT, 
double-rupee and rupee, and the second in the ahmadl, double- 
rupee and half-rupee; but it is quite probable that this list is 
incomplete. 

SADIQI. 

The average weight of this coin is 106 grains and it>was proba- 
bly intended to be equivalent to two pagodas. The reverse 
inscription and its arrangement are identical with those found on 
the third type of ahmadl just described, and while the obverse 
inscription remains the same, the arrangement of the words as 
shown below is slightly different, making allowance of course for 
the designation of the coin sadlql, and the various cyclic years 
and dates which appear on this surface in the four known varieties 
of the coin. 



18 

Obverse. 



Iff! 

^ IjL JL> ^ 

Muhammad. The religion of Ahmad is illumined in 
the world by the victory of Haidar ^. A sadiqT struck at Pattan 
the (cyclic) year Sara (42), the (Mauludl) year I2l6. 

PAGODA. 

Of this coin, generally termed the Sultan! pagoda, which 
weighs normally 52% grains, there are three varieties and the last 
of these bears the distinctive term faruql. 

I. Struck at the Pattan and Nagar mints in the first four 
years of the reign, of which the following may be taken as an 
example : 

Obverse. Reverse. 



On a granulated field. 

Obv. Haidar's initial -~ combined with the name of the 
mint Pattan, and the numeral 4 (regnal year). 

Rev. He is the Sultan, the Just. HijrT year 1200. 

In three coins of this type struck in the years IIQ7 and 1198 no 
mint is recorded, and the obverse merely bears Haidar's initial and 
the numeral denoting the regnal year. As no pagodas issued 
during these years show the mint-name Pattan, they were in all 
probability struck at this city. In the Nagar coins the mint-name 
is placed to the left of Haidar's initial. 

2. Struck at the Pattan and Nagar mints in 1215, and at 
Dharwar in 1216. The following is an example: 

Obverse. Reverse. 

As in var. I, but 
regnal year & 




iru 

^ J. 



Obv.Haidar's initial combined with the name of the mint 
Pattan, and the numeral 5 (regnal year). 

Rev. Muhammad. He is the Sultan, the Just. Year 1215. 

In the Nagar coin the name of the mint is placed to the left of 
Haidar's initial, while in the Dharwaf one it is placed below the 
initial. 

3. Struck at Pattan from 1216 to 1223, at Nagar in 1216 and 
1217, and at Khwurshed-sawad in 1217 and I2l8. As before a 
Pattan coin is taken as an example. 

Obverse. Reverse. 

*& 




Obv. A farQql. Pattan ^ (regnal) year 6. 
Haidar's initial and the name of the mint are combined. 

Rev- Muhammad. He is the Sultan, the Unique, the Just. 
Year 1216. 

In the Nagar coins the mint-name is to right of Haidar's 
initial. 

The two Khwurshed-sawad faruqis show the following in- 
scription on the obverse : 



Obv. A farQql ^ Khwurshed-sawad (regnal) year 7. 
In this case Haidar's initial is combined with the last letter of 
faruqT. 

FANAM. 

This coin, which weighs from 5 to 6 grains, was equal in value 
to one-tenth of a pagoda, and in spite of its small size had a con- 
siderable circulation in Southern India, where, apart from those 
issued by Tipu Sultan, many varieties of fanam exist. 

In all Tipu's fanams the obverse exhibits only Haidar's initial ^ 
within a lined circle and a row of dots, but there are several slight 
variations in the reverse inscription. In the Pattan fanams we find 



20 



f M 'A ^ ^jLi t-^* (struck at Pattan in the year 1198), or ' H A 
^ cjy* (struck at Pattan 1198) ; the first of these arrangements is 
met with only in the first two regnal years, while the second exists 
from the second to the thirteenth year. In the Nagar fanams the in- 
scription is similar to the later or second Pattan type, while in those 
of Calicut it agrees with the first Pattan type, except that the word 
c-jf* is omitted and the last letter of the mint-name occupies 
a line by itself. The Feroke fanams bear only the mint-name and 
the date, while the Khaliqabad ones have the date in the middle 
of the field, with the mint-name above and the word L->J* 
below. I have never seen a specimen of the Dharwar fanam and 
am, therefore, unable to state the arrangement of its inscription. 



THE SILVER COINS. 

Seven varieties of silver coin were issued by Tlpu Sultan, viz., 
the double-rupee struck at Pattan, Nagar, and Calicut, the rupee at 
Pattan, Nagar, Dharwar and Khwurshed-sawad, the half-rupee 
at Pattan and Nagar, and finally the quarter, eighth, sixteenth and 
thirty-second of a rupee, issued only from the Pattan mint. 

No silver coins appear to have been struck in the first regnal 
year, and only coins smaller than the rupee are known after the 
thirteenth year. The smallest fraction of the rupee or khizri, was 
apparently only struck in the twelfth year. 



DOUBLE-RUPEE. 

This coin which generally weighs from 352 to 355 grains 
presents three varieties or types as regards its inscriptions, and as 
these are identical with those already described in detail in the 
case of the gold ahmadl, it is unnecessary to repeat them. In the 
double-rupees of the third type, however, the coin-name haidarl 
appears on the obverse, in place of the word ahmadl found on the 
gold coin. 

The first type of inscription is found on coins dated from 
1198 to I2l6, including the latter year, while the third type which 
commences in this same year 1216 is continued to 1220. Of 
two double-rupees issued from the Nagar mint, one dated 1200 
conforms to the earliest type, while the other dated 1215 also 
belongs to the first type, but shows two variations on the obverse, 

the word <**z&* (Muhammad) being added to the usual word <X4^-1 
(Ahmad) in the first line, and the word < >v* (struck) being placed 
before the name of the mint in the last line. The two Calicut double- 
rupees struck in 1215, which differ chiefly in the arrangement of the 
figures in the date, are of the second type, but in one of them the 
name of the cyclic year occurs in the last line on the obverse. 

In several of the earlier double-rupees both fields, but more 
particularly the reverse, are ornamented with conventional floral 
and even cruciform 'designs, in addition to the usual rosettes 
composed of dots ; in the later coins the fields are plain. 



21 

RUPEE. 

This coin weighs on an average 175 grains, but an exceptional 
specimen may weigh as much as 188 grains. It exists in two types, 
which except for differences to be detailed presently, agree as 
regards the inscriptions and their arrangement with the first and 
third types already noted in the case of the ahmadl and double- 
rupee. In the coins of the later type the distinctive name imaml 
appears on the obverse. 

The first type, so far as is known, was issued only from 
Seringapatam and Nagar, in the year 1200, while the later one 
appeared from the year 1216 onwards at Seringapatam, and at 
Dharwar in I2l6. A rupee struck at Nagar in 1216, which must be 
regarded as a variety of the later type, shows the following 
variations in the arrangement of the inscriptions; it will be noted 
that Haidar's initial is omitted : 

Obverse. Reverse. 

&> 



,-- 

Ju. IjU JU /5 

Obv. Ahmad. The religion of Muhammad is illumined in 
the world by the victory of Haidar. An imam! struck at Nagar, the 
(cyclic) year Sara (42), the (Mauludl) year 1216. 

Rev. He is the Sultan, the Unique, the Just. Date of acces- 
sion the (cyclic) year Sakh (37), the 3rd of BaharL Regnal year 6. 
The rupees struck at Khwurshed-sawad in 1217 and 1218 show 
the following variation in the obverse : 

Obverse. 




Q bv .Muhammad. The religion of Ahmad is illumined in 
the world by the victory of Haidar T -. An imaml struck at 
Khwurshed-sawad, the (cyclic) year Sarab (43), the (Mauludl) }<ear 
1217. 



HALF-RUPEE. 

This com, the abidl, weighs about 87 grains and exists in 
the second and third types already described for several of the 
foregoing gold and silver coins, but the half-rupee struck at 
Seringapatam in 1215, is the only known representative of the 
second type. The Nagar half-rupee agrees with the double-rupee, 
issued from the same mint in 1215 and already described, in which 
A*s* (Muhammad) is added to &+=-} (Ahmad] in the first line of the 

obverse, and the word <-r^ (struck) is found at the commencement 
of the last line on the same surface. 

QUARTER-RUPEE. 

Of this coin, otherwise known as the baqirl, which has an 
average weight of about 43 grains, and was struck at the Seringa- 
patam mint from 1216 to 1224, only a single type exists with the 
following inscriptions : 




Iff! 




Obv. Muhammad. He is the Sultan, the Unique, the Just. 
Year 1216 (MaulQdl). 

Rev. Ba^qiri (regnal) year 6, ^, Pattan. 

EIGHTH-RUPEE. 

This coin, the jafarT, with an average weight of about 20 grains, 
was struck at Seringapatam from 1218 to 1226. The inscriptions 
are still further reduced. 

Obverse. 
Airf 



i w/*as- ,~>w> . 




. 
' 

Obv. Muhammad. Year 1218 (MaulQdT). Struck at Pattan. *- 
Rev. JafarT. Regnal year 8. 

It will be seen that Haidar's initial is combined with the name 
of the mint. 



23 
SIXTEENTH-RUPEE. 



This coin, known as the kaziml, weighs approximately lo 
grains, and was issued from the Seringapatam mint in the years 
1220 to 1226. Except for the presence of the distinctive name of 
the coin the inscriptions are identical with those on the eighth- 
rupee. The following is the arrangement on the reverse : 



,1 

^/JU *J^*~ 

Rev. Kaziml. Regnal year 10. 

THIRTY-SECOND OF A RUPEE. 

This, the smallest of all Tlpu's coins, which weighs approxi- 
mately 5 grains, was 'struck at Seringapatam, so far as is known 
only in the year 1222. It bears the following inscriptions: 

Obverse. Reverse. 

r f 



Obv. Struck at the royal residence.* 
Rev. Khizrl (regnal year) 12. 

Although no mint-name appears on the coin it may be assumed 
with some degree of probability, on the analogy of the other small 
silver coins, that the khizrl emanated from Seringapatam. 

THE COPPER COINS. 

Copper coins in five different values, viz., double-paisa, paisa, 
half-paisa, quarter-paisa and eighth-paisa were issued by Tlpu 
Sultan from no fewer than twelve different mints, though only the 
paisa appears to have been struck at all of these. The paisa, also, 
is the only coin known to have been struck in each of the seventeen 
regnal years. 

The copper coins, unlike the gold and silver ones, invariably 
exhibit on the obverse a figure of an elephant, either advancing 
or standing with its head to the right or left of the field, t and 
in some of the double-paisas the animal is represented with its 
trunk uplifted, as if engaged in the act of tasltm or salaaming, 
an action which it is usually trained to perform on special 

* I have followed the late Major Tufnell in making the phrase dar al saltanat the 
equivalent of ' royal residence ', rather than of ' capital ', as it occurs on coins from four 
different mints. 

t In the Catalogue the terms ' right ' or left ' invariably refer to the right or left of 
the observer, and not to (he heraldic or proper right and left 



24 

occasions. .- It is generally fully caparisoned, with an elaborately 
decorated body-cloth and head-covering, and with metal anklets 
on all its feet, in other words with the ornamental trappings 
worn by the animal on ceremonial or state occasions. As 
a general rule to which, however, there are many exceptions, 
the elephant in the earlier coins up to 1221 is turned to the left, 
while in the later ones from 1221 onwards it is turned to the right ; 
the exceptions are most frequently met with during the first few 
years of each of these periods. The elephant, which in India is 
generally associated with royalty, is an inhabitant of the Mysore 
jungles and appears on the 'Gajapati' pagoda, which probably 
originated in the ancient Ganga dynasty of Mysore, a coin which 
was doubtless well known to Haidar and Tlpu. 

The paisa weighs approximately 174 grains and the other 
copper coins in due proportion. The special designations appear 
first on the double-paisa in 1218 and on the smaller coins in 1221. 

A reference is made elsewhere to the fact that some of the 
smaller copper coins bear the title of a coin of higher value, and 
it has been suggested that this was the result of a deliberate 
intention to raise the value of the coin. It is remarked by Buchanan 
(Journey to Mysore, Vol. I, p. 129, 1807) : " The value of the different 
coins was frequently changed by the late Sultan in a very arbitrary 
and oppressive manner. When he was about to pay his troops, the 
nominal value of each coin was raised very high, and kept at that 
standard for about ten days ; during which time the soldiery were 
allowed to pay off their debts at the high valuation. After this, the 
standard was reduced to the proper value/' It has, however, always 
seemed to me more probable that the title of these peculiar coins 
is the result rather of an error on the part of an ignorant workman 
who was not familiar with the Arabic letters. It seems hardly 
likely that a purely temporary measure would be recorded on 
the coin. 

By many writers the double-paisa is described as a forty- 
cash piece, and the other coins in relative proportion down to the 
eighth of a paisa which is the equivalent of two-and-a-half cash. 
The term cash or ' kas ' was in use in the Tamil districts of South- 
ern India and was introduced in the copper currency of Mysore 
after the death of Tlpu Sultan, when Krishna Raja was placed on 
the throne, probably to make the coins conform to those of the 
English East India Company. It is, however, doubtful if the term 
was used by Tlpu, and we know from contemporary writers that 
the word ' paisa ' was then in general use (vide Kirkpatrick, 
Letter CCXXXIV). 

The inscriptions on the copper coins are always of limited extent 
and are practically confined to the reverse. 

DOUBLE-PAISA. 

This coin, which weighs from 331 to 352 grains, was struck at 
Seringapatam and Nagar from 1218 to 1226, at ChitaldrUg in 1218 
and I2IQ, and at Feroke in 1218 ; specimens without any indication 
of the date are also known from the first two of these mints. 
There are three main types of this coin : 



25 

(l) Those issued from all four mints between the years 1218 
and 1221, the latter year in the case of Pattan only, of which the 
following may be taken as an example : 

Obverse. Reverse. 

Elephant to right with uplifted ^i) ^W^c 

trunk. Date A f f f over the * - : - o 



tail. Above the elephant a 

flag. 

Othmam struck at the royal 
residence Pattan. 

(2) Those issued from Pattan and Nagar in the years 1222 
and 1223, of which the following is an example: 

Obverse. Reverse. 

As in type (l) but date fTPf, As in type (l) but name of 

and the word S^jff c i n />* (mushtarl). 

(mauludi) above the 

elephant. 

There is a second double-paisa from the Pattan mint, dated 
1221, in which the above obverse (2) is combined with a reverse in 
which the word mushtarl is found, but not the epithet dar al- 
saltanat (royal residence). 

(3) Those issued from Pattan and Nagar in the letter years 
1224 to 1226, both included : 

Obverse. Reverse. 

Elephant to right with depressed 
trunk. Above the elephant a 

flag carrying the letter j but no P f T f 

date. 



Mushtarl struck at the royal 
residence Pattan, in the 
MaulUdl year 1224. 

PAISA. 

This coin, which as already remarked was struck at all the 
mints, has an average weight of 174 grains, but examples weighing 
as little as 160 grains and as much as 193 grains are met with. In 
the earlier paisas, with the exception of the two earliest Nagar 
ones, the obverse shows merely the elephant and date, but the 
Pattan and Nagar coins from 1221 to 1223 (both years included) 
have in addition the word >j>f ^ mauludi, 'relating to the birth ' 
and two paisas struck at Pattan in the years 1221 and 1222 the 
words ^/ A*2*< Muhammad maulud, ' the birth of Muhammad,' 

The distinctive letter for each year is found on coins of che two 
mints just mentioned, and also on those of Faiz Hisar, from 1224 
onwards, and as late as 1227 in the case of Nagar, but the word 
mauludi has now disappeared from the obverse. As regards the 

4 



26 

reverse the earlier coins as a rule merely record the mint, with 
the word ^j^> ' struck at ', but on Pattan and Nagar paisas of 1221 
and subsequent years the special name of the coin *j&>j zohra, or [^>j 

zohra, appears, while in those of Faiz Hisar it is only met with 
in the letter years. In the case of all three mints, during the letter 
years, the word mauludi is associated with the date on the reverse. 
A Feroke paisa struck in 1216 has the word -*- sanah, ' year ' 
on the obverse, and according to Jackson a Pattan paisa of 1217 
has v r^-o on the obverse and the date along with the name of 
the mint on the reverse. A Nagar paisa of 1197 has the word 
^x- with the date on the reverse. The reverses of some of the 
earlier paisas of Calicut record the word j*+j bundar, 'the port ', 
and in others from this mint the regnal year is stated on the same 
surface. Undated paisas are known from the Pattan, Nagar, Faiz 
Hisar and Calicut mints. 

HALF-PAISA. 

This coin, which was issued from all the mints except Calicut, 
weighs on an average 87 grains, but variations between 82 and 92 
grains are met with. The inscriptions and their arrangement in 
the half-paisa agree on the whole with those of the paisa, the only 
important difference lying in the fact that the word mauludi is 
entirely omitted from the former, except in the case of the half- 
paisas struck at Nagar in the last three years of the reign. 

The special name f\j-tf bahram, occurs first on Pattan coins in 
1221 and on Nagar and Faiz Hisar ones in 1222 and 1224 respec- 
tively. Undated half-paisas are known from the Pattan, Nagar, 
Faiz Hisar and Bengalur mints. 

QUARTER-PAISA. 

This weighs on an average 42 grains, but examples are met with 
weighing from 32 to 49 grains ; it appears to have been struck at all 
the mints except Khwurshed-sawad. A quarter-paisa from the 
Nagar mint dated 1198 has the date and the word *->* recorded 
on the reverse ; the Calicut coins of the same value have no 
date on either side and merely the name of the mint-town on 
the reverse. 

The distinctive name j-te-l akhtar appears first on Pattan coins 
in 1221, but on those of Nagar and Faiz Hisar it rarely occurs till 
the letter years. In other respects the quarter-paisa agrees with 
the half-paisa. 

Attention is drawn elsewhere to the extraordinary errors which 
occur in some of the quarter-paisas of Nagar, Faiz Hisar and 
Khaliqabad, errors not only in the date, but extending even to the 
name of the coin in the first two of these mints. Undated quarter- 
paisas are known from the Pattan, Faiz Hisar, Bengalur, Kallkut 
and Khaliqabad mints. 

EIGHTH-PAISA. 

This the smallest of the copper coins, weighing on an average 
21 grains, but occasionally as little as 18 grains, was struck only at 



the Pattan, Nagar, Bengalur, Farrukh-yab Hisar and^Salamabad 
mints. It appeared as early as the year 1216 and as late as 1226. 

The special name c^k? quib, is only met with on the later Pattan 
and Nagar coins, appearing in the first of these as early as the 
year 1222, and as late as the penultimate letter year 1226, while 
the only known eighth-paisa from the Nagar nvnt was issued 
in the year 1226. A variety is known, possibly struck at Pattan, 
in which the name of the mint is omitted, although the word qutb 
occurs (vide Jackson, pi. II, fig. 405), and another is known without 
any indication of the date. 

THE MILLING OF THE COINS. 

While the copper coins of Tlpu Sultan are invariably unmilled, 
many of his gold and silver coins exhibit a highly peculiar 
and characteristic milling, similar to that met with in some French 
coins, and which, therefore, perhaps owes its origin to some of 
Tlpu's French workmen. It consists of one or two irregular grooves 
running around the edge of the coin, interrupted at regular 
intervals by transverse depressions or indentations, in such 
a manner as to give almost a crenated appearance to the margin. 
In some cases, possibly as the result of wear, the grooves have 
disappeared and only the crenations remain. The gold ahmadls 
and sadlqls are all milled, as are also the later pagodas issued after 
1215, with an occasional lapse ;the pagodas of the earlier series are 
unmilled. The four larger silver coins, from the double-rupee to the 
quarter-rupee, appear invariably to be milled, and the few doubtful 
specimens which are met with probably owe their appearance to 
undue wear rather than to an original absence of milling. A 
Seringapatam rupee of I2IQ in the collection of the Madras Museum, 
is peculiar in exhibiting a coarse oblique milling, similar to that 
met with in some of the East India Company Madras rupees and 
their fractions which were struck early in the nineteenth century. 

ALLIED COINS. 

Copper coins of quarter-paisa size, with an elephant on the 
obverse, but which were evidently not struck by Haidar or TlpQ, 
are occasionally met with. In one of these which is an obvious 
copy of Tlpu's quarter-paisas, the elephant is surmounted by a 
crescent and star, while the reverse bears the mint-name Ganji- 
kotah (Gandikota in the Cuddapah district), and the date 1215 
(l8oo-OI A.D.). In others, the reverses which are always in- 
complete and usually illegible, suggest that they were struck by 
some of the Chiefs in the Bellary, Anantapur and Cuddapah 
districts, who struck coins in the name of the Mughal Emperors. 
One of these bears the date 1161 (1748 A.D.) above the elephant, 
and if this is not an error as I strongly suspect, it might be regarded 
as the proto-type from which Haidar All took the elephant 
obverse. Jackson (Coin Collecting in Mysore, pi. II, fig. 484) figures a 
half-paisa in which the reverse bears the illegible name of a mint 
and the date 1202 (1787-88 A.D.). This coin, which is not uncom- 
mon, has an elephant to right, while a second type exists in which 
the elephant is to the left; both are possibly local issues of 
Walla j ah, Nawab of the Carnatic. 



TABLE showing the date according to the Christian reckoning of the 
commencement of each year of Tipu Sultan's reign. 



i 

>> 

1 
& 


I 

." 
"o 
>, 

u 


8 
?-, 

1 
tj 

J 


Mauludi year. 


First day of Mauludi 
year (Hindu New 
Year's Day). 


IH 

(4 
V 

>N 

hrH 
HH 


First day of Hijrt 
year. 


I 


17 








IIQ7 


7th December 1782. 




J/ 












II. 


38 


... 


... 





1198 


26th November, 1783. 


Ill 


30 








IIOQ 


i<ith November 1784 




J.7 












IV. 


40 




... 





1200 


4th November, 1785. 












1201 


24th October, 1786. 
















v. 


41 




i2it; 


20th March, 1787. 




















VI. 


42 




1216 


7th April, 1788. 








T"" 












VJI. 


43 




1217 


27th March, 1789. 








*rJ 












VIII. 


44 


... 


1218 


1 6th March, 1790. 


... 





IX 


AC 




T2TQ 


4th April, 1791. 








45 




iz;iy 








X. 


46 




1220 


23rd March, 1792. 








4\j 












XI 


A <J 




TOOT 


i 3th March, 1793. 








4/ 












XII 


48 




1222 


1st Aoril T704.. 




















XIII. 


49 


... 


1223 


2ist March, 1795. 


... 





XIV. 


50 


! 


1224 


8th April, 1796. 


... 





XV. 


5 1 


' V 


1225 


29th March, 1797. 


... 





XVI. 


52 


c^ 


1226 


i8th March, 1 798. 







XVII. 


53 


eiJI 


1227 


6th April, 1799. 


... 






NOTE. The dates in the column showing the commencement of each Mauludi year are 
taken from page XCV of the Indian Calendar, by Sewell and Balakrishna Dikshit (1896). 

The interval between the fourth and fifth regnal years represents the period between the 
close of the Ilijrl year 1200 (on 23rd October, 1786) and the commencement of the Mauludi 
year 1215 (on 20th March, 1787). It corresponds to about the first five months of the liijri 
year 1201. 



TABLE showing the years in which Gold and Silver Coins were struck 
at the different mints of Tipu Sultan. 



J .; 

C 2 
bfl 8 

* 


1 


Ahmadl. 


T 

5 

rt 

cn 


oS 

1 

rt 
(X 


Fanam. 


Double- 
rupee. 


oJ 
1 

c5 


, i 

'*- a- 
-2 2 

H 


Quarter, 
rupee. 


6 8 

x: ex, 

b/3 3 
2 


1 

- 


<u 
1) 

a, 
2 

rt| 


Mints. 


' T 


T in*? 






X. 


I, 2. 
















I Pa i tan 


1. 


liy/ 
























2. Nagar. 


II. 


1198 


I 


... 


2, X. 


I, 2, 

6. 


I 





... 


... 




... 


- 


6. Kalikut. 
7. Farrukhi. 
Q. Khaliqa- 


III. 


1199 


I 


... 


2 


I, 2, 

6. 


i 


... 









'" 


... 


bad. 
II. Dharwar. 
ila. Khwur- 


IV. 


1200 


... 


... 


I, 2. 


I, 2, 

6. 


I, 2. 


I, 2. 


... 


... 


... 






shed- 
sawad. 
x. No mint 


V. 


1215 


I 


... 


I, 2. 


I, 2, 6, 

9- 


I, 2, 6. 


... 


I, 2 






... 


... 


on coin. 


VI. 


1216 


2 


i 


I, 2, 
II. 


i, 2, 7. 
n. 


I 


I, 2, 
II. 


I 


I 


... 


1 






VII. 


I2i; 


I 


i 


I, 2, 

na. 


i, 2, 7, 
9- 


1 


I, ila. 


I 


I 










VIII. 


1218 


I 


1 


I, ila. 


i, 7- 


i 


I, Ila 


I 


I 


I 


... 


... 




IX. 


1219 


I 


' 


I 


i 


I 


I 


I 


... 


- 




... 




X. 


T220 


... 




I 


I, 2. 


I 


I 


I 


... 


I 


1 






XL 


1221 




... 


I 


I, 2. 


... 


... 


... 


* I 


I 


I 


... 




XII. 


1222 


... 


... 




I 


... 


... 


I 


I 


I 


I 


i 




XIII. 


1223 


... 


... 


i 




... 


I 




... 


I 


' 






"VTV 


T V? A 














I 


j 




I 






-A.1 V . 




























w 


T yy c. 


















I 


I 






.A. V . 


1225 


























WT 


T 'yyf* 


















I 


I 






yv v i. 




























WTT 


T f y f )'7 


























yv v 11. 


1227 



























TABLE showing the years in which Copper Coins were struck at the 
different mints of Ttpu Sultan. 



i 

>> 

M 

flj 

& 


V 

J> 


Double-paisa. 


Paisa. 


Half-paisa. 


Quarter-paisa. 




1 

5 



3 


Mints. 


I. 


"97 


... 


I, 2. 






... 


I. Pattan. 
2. Nagar. 


II. 


1198 




6 


... 


1,2. 


... 


3. Faiz Hisar. 
4. Bengalur. 


III. 


1199 




2, 6. 


... 




... 


5. Farrukh- 
yab Hisar. 


IV. 


1200 


... 


i, 2, 4, 6. 


I, 2. 


I, 2, 4 . 


. . 


6. Kallkut. 
7. Farrukhl. 

S^olumu V>5H 


V. 


1215 


... 


i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
9- 


I, 2, 3,4, 5, 9, 

10. 


I, 3,4- 


... 


9. Khaliqa- 
bad. 


VI. 


1216 


... 


i, 2,3,4,5. 7, 

8, 10, 12. 


i, 2, 3, 4, 5, S, 

10, 12. 


1,2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 
8, 9, 12. 


i, 4. 


Ii. Khwurshed- 
sawad. 


VII. 


1217 


... 


i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 
8, 9, ii. 


i, 2, 3, 4. 5> 7< 
8,9,11. 


i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 
9. 


i, 5- 




VTIT 


T2TR 


I, 2, 








I 4, 








5,7- 


8, 10, ii. 


9, 10. 


10. 


8. 




IX. 


1219 


i,5- 


I, 2, 4, 5- 


i, 4, 5- 


I, 4, 5- 


4 




X. 


1220 


i 


I, 2, 3. 


1 


I 


... 




XI. 


1221 


i 


I, 2, 3. 


I, 2, 3 . 


I 


1 




XII. 


1222 


I, 2. 


!> 2, 3. 


I, 2, 3. 


r, 3- 


i 




XIII. 


1223 


I, 2. 


I, 2. 


I, 2, 3- 


i> 3- 


... 




XIV. 


1224 


I, 2. 


I, 2, 3. 


1,2,3. 


i, 2, 3. 


i 




XV. 


1225 


I, 2. 


I, 2, 3. 


I, 2, 3. 


1,2, 3. 


I 




XVI. 


1226 


I, 2. 


I, 2, 3. 


I, 2, 3- 


i, 2, 3. 


I, 2. 




XVII. 


1227 




2 


2 


... 


... 




... 


No 
date. 


I, 2. 


i, 2, 3, 6. 


i, 2, 3, 4. 


i 3, 4. 6,9. 


I 





3i 
I. PATTAN -o 

iv 
(The Town.) 

The word Pattan is a contraction for Srlrarigapattana (Seringa- 
patam) 'the town of the Blessed Rariganatha,' in the southern 
part of Mysore. Here, on an island in the River Cauvery, has 
existed from the ninth century a Vishnuvaite temple of great 
sanctity dedicated to Rariganatha, and as has happened so often 
under similar circumstances in Southern India, a city in course of 
time grew up around it. Seringapatam is situated at the western 
end of an island three miles long, by about one in breadth, and its 
fortifications, which were originally built by successive Rajas of 
Mysore who made the city their capital, were extended and greatly 
strengthened by Haidar and Tlpu. The town was seized by Haidar 
in 1761, at a time when he was becoming firmly established in 
Mysore ; ten years later it was besieged by the Marathas, who after 
a blockade of fifteen months, were finally induced to come to terms. 

The town in its long history stood many sieges, but only the 
last two of these need be referred to. A British army under Lord 
Cornwallis appeared before Seringapatam on 6th February 1792, 
and eighteen days later Tlpu was forced to capitulate, the terms 
including the handing over of half his dominions and the payment 
of a heavy indemnity. The date of the first British siege of 
Seringapatam, which corresponds to about a month before the close 
of 1219 A.M., is of considerable numismatic interest, for thereafter 
the mints of Dindigul, Feroke (which succeeded Calicut), Gurram- 
konda, and Dharwar, were no longer in Mysore territory ; indeed 
all of these had ceased to issue coins in the previous year. At the 
same time the number of Tlpu's mints was greatly reduced, and 
after 1219 only Seringapatam, Nagar and Gooty, remained in 
operation. The final siege, under the command of General Harris, 
commenced on the 5th of April 1799, and on the 4th of May the 
fort was taken by assault and Tlpu Sultan slain. 

As the capital of the State Seringapatam was the most important 
of the mints established by Tlpu Sultan. Coins of all the values 
in gold, silver and copper, were struck, and some or other of 
these were issued during all the regnal years, except the last, 
which commenced less than a month before Tlpu's death. The 
coins are usually of superior execution, yet die errors are not 
unknown. Two gold fanams with blundered dates are recorded 
and also an incorrectly dated rupee of 1220. A paisa, probably of 
I2l6, is dated 2l6, and another of 1220 is dated 1260; a quarter- 
paisa is recorded by Jackson with bahram (half-paisa) in error for 
akhtar, and a quarter-paisa of 1225 is wrongly dated 1224. There 
is a one-eighth paisa dated 1222, with no indication of the mint- 
town, which in all probability emanated from Seringapatam. 

In the catalogue reference will be found to certain special 
marks, which occur in addition to the usual dotted rosettes on some 
of the double-paisas, paisas and half-paisas, more particularly of 
1224, 1225 and 1226. One of these, which may be described as 
an obliquely twisted pointed oval, occurs also on Gooty copper 
coins of 1225 and 1226. What the significance of this mark may 



32 

have been it is impossible to say, but the fact that it occurs on 
coins of the same years issued from two different mints, appears 
to indicate that some importance was attached to it. 

The coins in all three metals show a border, which was copied 
in several of the other mints, consisting of a double-lined * circle 
enclosing a row of dots, the only exceptions being the double- 
rupee and rupee of 1219, which exhibit short concentric rays 
arranged in the form of a circular band. 

On the copper coins from the year I22lt onwards, the denomi- 
nation of value is recorded, that of the paisa being ly*>j zohra in a 
single case (No. I2i), and in all others *j*\ zohra. In the same 
year reference is made for the first time to the new era instituted 
by Tlpu, paisas of 1221 and 1222 bearing the date and the words 

j^-ss^o ^J** 'the birth of Muhammad ', to be followed in coins of 

+ j 

the same years and of 1223 in addition, by the date and the 
adjectival word *^yf* ' relating to the birth/ 

As regards the gold coins, specimens of the ahmadl and sadlql 
are of great rarity, particularly the latter, but most of the pagodas 
and fanams are not uncommon. Counterfeit fanams, evidently 
made when the coins were in circulation, are not uncommon in 
brass, copper, and even in silver. With the exception of some of 
the rupees and half-rupees, the silver coins are all scarce, particu- 
larly certain of the double-rupees and the smaller silver issues, 
notably the khizrl J, which is extremely rare. 

Many of the copper coins are still found in great numbers, but 
all the double-paisas, except .perhaps that of 1225, and the one- 
eighth paisas, are rare. The commonest paisas are those issued 
after 1220, and particularly those of the years 1224 and 1225 ; of the 
four varieties struck in 1221, the rarest is No. 121, of those struck in 
the following year No. 124, and of those of 1223 the rarest is No. 128. 
The paisas dated 1201 and 2l6 (for 1216) are both rare. The 
commonest half-paisas are those of 1224 and 1225, but many of the 
others are relatively common ; among the rarer ones may be 
enumerated Nos. 140, 148, 151 and 153. Of the two half-paisas of 
I2l6 the larger and thinner coin is the rarer. It may be noted 
that the half-paisa of 1226, a common coin, is always of coarser 
fabric than the corresponding coins of the two preceding years. 
Many of the quarter-paisas are still very common, particularly as 
in the case of the other copper coins, those of the later years. 



* In the smaller silver coins there is a single-lined circle forming the inner boundary 
of a row of dots. 

f Jackson records a quarter-paisa of 1219, with the designation bahraui in error for 
akhtar. I do not know of any other instance of the special name appearing on a quarter- 
paisa prior to the year 1221, and the record is possibly due to some mistake. 

J On this coin no mint is recorded, bat merely the fact that it was struck at the royal 
residence.' There can, I think, be no doubt that it is an issue of Seringapatam. 



33 
PATTAN. 



Metal. 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



AHMADI. 



A \ 
I I 1198 




L 



On a field ornamented with 

dotted rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle with 

a row of dots. 



UJ 



^ 



.- ; i- .X- Jjl JU 

On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



(Hawkes.) 



1199 



As on No. I, but cyclic year 



and date 



As on No. I, but cyclic 



year 
year 



and regnal 



(Jackson.) 



1215 



, . . v J 



As on No. I, but cyclic 
year ^ and regnal 
year *> 



l-te 



On a field ornamented with | 
dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PI. I. 





j 


34 
PATTAN. 


Metal. j 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. Reverse. 


4 


- 


AUUADlCOnt. 

t y ^ ^ Irs- ] >Ul| 






V ^ ) -^ C**> cr""^ ' v 


5 

6 
M 

7 


1218 

1219 
1216 


V f * f lo- * I, 

rX* W-'Iy-l jU ^ 

In a double-lined circle with In a double-lined circle 
a row of dots. with a row of dots. 

As on No. 4, but cyclic year As on No. 4, but regnal 
\1~> and date A ' year A 

As on No. 4, but cyclic year As on No. 4, but regnal 
^f.} and date i U f year i 

SADIQI. 

j j 






- &LI JU ^u j l j 


8 
M 

n 


1217 

TOTS 


1IM 1 

In a double-lined circle with In a double-lined circle 
a row of dots. with a row of dots. 

As on No. 7, but cyclic year As on No. 7, but regnal 
<*r>\j* and date v f f 1 year v PI. I. 

Ac rt-\ NT/-v *7 V\nt rtr/->1 1/-> troo i- ; Ac- /- Mr^ 7 V\nf rorrMol 



i and date 



year 



10 1219 As on No. 7, but cyclic year As on No. 7, but regnal 






and date <) f r 



year 



PATTAN. 



Dale. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



PAGODA. 



Al 
II 



1197 



UJ 



On a granulated field. 
In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



12 
M 



13 
M 



14 

M 



1198 As on No. II, but regnal As on No. II, but date 
year ' f ^ A 



As on No. n, regnal year) 
(in error for '"). 



1200 



: A combination of Haidar's 
initial ^ with the name 
of the mint ^-o 

On a granulated field. 
In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 

(Haivkes, pi II, fig. 

\ 
15 1215 As on No. 14, but regnal 



on No. 12. 
PL I. 



As on No. II, but date 

ir., 

Pi. I. 



M 



year 






f r r 6 ' 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



PATTAN. 



Metal. [ 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


! 

Reverse. 


PAGODA cont. 


16 


1216 


_ J \\j 


,-,'kU! 


M 




' 7T " 


ji >^- 




~jLi 


i f r f j^uii j| 






Haidar's initial and the 
name of the mint are 
combined as before. 
In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 


In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 


17 

M 


1217 


As on No. 16, but regnal 

V PI I 

year * ri - * 


As on No. 1 6, but date 

vf rr 


18 
M 


1218 


As on No. 16, but regnal 
year A 


As on No 16, but date 

Airi 


19 
M 


1219 


As on No. 16, but regnal 
year i 


As on No. 1 6, but date 

Or.f 


20 
M 

21 
M 


1220 
1221 


As on No. 16, but regnal 
year f 

As on No. 16, but regnal 
year ' 


As on No. 16, but date 

rr.i 

As on No. 16, but date 

f.rri 


22 


1223 


As on No. 16, but regnal 
year f~f 


As on No. 16, but date 

rrrf 


FANAM. 


23 

M 


1197 T: 


f MV 




; On a plain field : in a lined 
circle with a row of dots. 


c*V 


; 


1198 

i 


As on No. 23. 


Dotted rosettes in the 
lower part of the field : 
in a lined circle with a 
row of dots. 
As on No. 23, but date 
'MA and on a plain 
field. 



PATTAN 



Dale. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



FANAM com. 



Al 

25 



26 



1198 



1199 



M 

27 j 1200 
M 

28 i 1201 



29 1215 
M 

30 



As on No. 23. 

PI. I. 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



(Jackson.) 



1218 

34 I2I 9 

M 

35 I22 

36 i 1221 

37 I222 

) 
38 1223 

M ' 
39 



: As on No. 23. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



On a plain field. 

In a lined circle with a 

row of dots. 
As n No. 25, uut date 

I 11 
| As on No. 25, but date 

fr.* 

As on No. 25, but date 

f r.i 



As on No. 25, but date 
[f f a 

As on No. 25, but date 

6 If. | 
As on No- 25, but date 

vri 

As on No. 25, but date 

vf rf 
As on No. 25, but date 



As on No. 25, but date 

liri 

As on No. 25, but date 

.rrr 

As on No. 25, but date 

irrf 

As on No. 25, but date 

rrrf 

As on No. 25, but date 

rrrl 

As on No. 23, but Haidar's As on No. 25, but date 
initial reversed. v f v f (possibly in error 

for virr) 

(Jackson.) 



38 
PATTAN. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Keverse. 



40 



41 I 198 
M 



FANAM 



As on No. 23. 



As on No. 25, but date 
represented only by the 
figures i r 



(Tufnell.) 

DOUBLE- '<UPEE. 



I f <JA 



J! 



On a field ornamented with On a field ornamented 
dotted rosettes. with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle with , In a double-lined circle 
a row of dots. PI. I. ! with a row of dots. 

In some examples the field, more particularly on the 
reverse, is elaborately decorated with floral designs. 

42 As on No. 41. AS on No. 41, but cyclic 

year j- 2 ?" and regnal 
year !~ 

(Weyl) 

43 1199 As on No. 41, but cyclic j As on No. 42. 

year J.?- and date f M V 



44 



1200 As on No. 41, but cyclic As on No. 41, but cyclic 
year jb and date ff. year ;^ and regnal 

year f 



39 
PATTAN. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



DOUBLE-RUPEE 



Reverse. 



AR 



45 1215 i As on No. 41, but cyclic ! As on No. 41, but cyclic 



46 



47 
M 



1216 



year ^ and date 



As on No. 41, but cyclic 

year !i* and date ' 1 f T f 
' Pi. I. 



year u, an d regnal 

year ^ 

As on No. 41, but cyclic 

year [,U and regnal 

year 1 




f r 



On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. PI. II. 



I On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



48 
M 

49 



1217 j As on No. 47, but cyclic As on No. 47, but regnal 



year V/-' an d date 



viri 



year 



1218 As on No. 47, but cyclic As on No. 47, but regnal 

year \*~ and date A f f y ear A 



1219 ! As on No. 47, but cyclic | As on No. 47, but regnal 

j year -^flj and date^ f ; " ' year 1 
In a rayed circle. In a rayed circle. 

(Tufnell, />/. //, 116 J 

1220 As on No. 47, but cyclic \ As on No. 47, but regnal 

year ja** and date f T I year * ^ 



(Marsden.) 



40 
PATTAN. 



s 

.0 

p 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



RUPEE. 



52 



1200* 



1216 



-V 



j& j- j!o JU 

On a field ornamented with 
dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 




Iff 



JV- 



JU 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



54 



On a plain field. On a plain field. 

In a double-lined circle with In a double-lined circle 

a row of dots. PI. II. with a row of dots. 

In some examples the field on both sides is orna- 
mented with dotted rosettes. Jackson refers to a 
variety in which the coin is thicker than usual, with 
a plain rim instead of the double circle and dots. 



As on No. 53. 



As on No. 53, but regnal 
year v 



(Weyl.) 



* Rice (Mysore Gazetteer) refers to a rupee of 1198, but I am inclined to think this 
is an error as I do not know of any other reference to the coin. 



41 
PATTAN. 



Jl 



15 5 i Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



56 
M 



57 
M 



RUPEE cent. 

; 

1217 I As on No. 53, but cyclic \ As on No. 53, but regnal 
year c ,| .,* and date v f [" f year v 

i I2l8 As on No. 53, but cyclic i As on No. 53, but regnal 
year \^ and date A I r f year A 

1219 i As on No. 53, but cyclic As on No. 53, but regnal 

year Jc> ,j j and date ^ f f f ' year S 
In a rayed circle, PI. II. In a rayed circle. 

The only specimen of this coin I have seen has 
! an oblique milling. 



58 1220 As on No. 53, but cyclic 



year 



As on No. 53, but regnal 



year 



59 



60 
M 



1223 



^-i and date . f r i 
(in error for ' T f ) 

(Weyl.) 

As on No. 58. As on No. 53, but regnal 

year . f 
( Weyl.) 

As on No. 53, but cyclic As on No. 53, but regnal 
year j^ and date f*T T f | year r I 

I 
HALF-RUPEE. 



61 1215 






ofri 

^A^j jj \^o 



^Aw. \-i JU 



On a field ornamented with On a field ornamented 
dotted rosettes. with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. with a row of dots. 

(Taylor, pi. I, fig. 20.) 



AR , 

*62 ! 1216 
M 



42 
PATTAN. 





i 




i-S 






41 


Date. Obverse. 


Reverse. 



aj U 



HALF-RUPEE w*/. 



JL. !/- JL ^ 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

63 1217 , As on No. b2, but cyclic 

year ^-~\j~* and date v 

64 1218 As on No. 62, but cyclic 

year \li and date A f P f 

65 1219 i As on No. 62, but cyclic 

VP5ir j^.j ; and dateS ' T ( 

y cat . J. J 

66 1220 As on No. 62, but cyclic 

and date f T f 



M 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 62, but regnal 
year v 



As on No. 62, but regnal 
year A 

As on No. 62, but regnal 



year 



( Marsdcn.) 



67 [ 1222 As on No. 62, but cyclic 

and date r f T I 



year 



68 1224 As on No. 62, but cyclic 
year ^= ]/> and date 

prrf 

(Weyl.) 



As on No. 62, but regnal 
year * f 



As on No. 62, but regnal 
year r f PL 11. 

' 

As on No. 62, but regnal 
- y ear p f 



* Taylor (Co ins of Tipu Sultan, p. 27) describes an abidi of 1215 belonging to the 
third type on which the name of the coin is recorded, but it bears the cyclic year \^^ 

(1218) and is, therefore, probably the coin numbered 64 in the present catalogue. The 
coin dated 1215, which he figures on pi. I, fig. 20, belongs to the, second type and is No. 
61 above. 



43 
PATTAN. 



_J I 

rt g I Date. 



Revfr 



PR 

69 



QUARTER-RUPEE. 

I2T6 s**J*^ ^ 



uX i.^i.v^- . 

f M '-- 



70 
M 

71 
M 

72 
M 



^- J-'WI y! 

In a double-lined circle with In a double-lined circle 
a row of clots. with a row of dots. 

1217 As on No. 09, but date v [ T f As on No. 69, but regnal 

PL II. - vear v 

1218 As on No. 69, but date A f r ? As on No. 69, but regnal 

year A 

1221 As on No. 69, but date f f T f ! As on No. 69, but regnal 

year f ( 



7* 1222 As on No. 69, but dateT " f ' As on No. 69, but regnal 

M year ,- f 

74 1224 As on No. 60, but date p r T f As on No. 69, but regnal 

year r f 

Jackson records this coin with the regnal year 16, 
possibly an error on his part. 

EIGHTH-RUPEE. 

75 1218 A f r f ,iv>- 




In a lined circle with a row In a lined circle with a 
of dots. row of dots. 

Haidar's initial letter is 
combined with the name 
of the mint. 
I have not seen this coin, which is recorded only by 

Jackson, and have assumed that it is similar to the 

others of the same series. 



44 
P ATT AN. 



1) 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



76 

78 

79 

80 
81 



1220 
1221 

1222 
1223 

1225 
1226 



EIGHTH-RUPEE cont. 

As on No. 75, but date f T f As on No. 75, but regnal 

year 4 f 

As on No. 75, but date f r r f ! As on No. 75, but regnal 
iDi TT year ( [ 

r 1. 11. 

As on No. 75, but date r r T ( A S on No. 75, but regnal 

year r f 

As on No. 75, but date r r T f As "^ 75 ' but 



(Marsden.) 
As on No. 75, but date & r P 

As on No. 75, but date Iff, 



y a r 



As on No. 75, but regnal 
year c f 

As on No. 75, but regnal 
year 1 f 



82 



83 
M 



84 
85 



1220 



1221 



1222 



(Weyl.) 

SIXTEENTH-RUPEE 

*rrf 




In a lined circle with a row 
of dots. 




In a lined circle with a 
row of dots. 



As on No. 82, but date r T f As on No. 82, but regnal 



PI. ii. 

In some examples Haider's initial is combined with 
the name of the mint. 



As on No. 82, but date, 1 * T T 



As on No. 84. 



As on No. 82, but regnal 
year r f 

As on No. 82, but regnal 
year f f (in error for 

r.h 



(Jackson, pi. 11, 395.) 



45 
PATTAN. 



Dale. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



SIXTEENTH-RUPEE- cont. 
86 T223 As on No. 82, but date f~r \ f As on No. 82, but regnal 



year 
(Marsden ) 

87 1224 j As on No. 82, but datef r f f As on No. 86. 

88 1225 As on No. 82, but date c T T ! As on No. 82, but regnal 

year i \ 

In the only example of this coin that I have seen the 
regnal year is placed in the upper line of the reverse. 



89 1226 As on No. 82, but date*] r f 



As on No. 82, but regnal 



90 



year i ' 
(Weyl) 

1 As on No. 82, but date As on No. 89. 
r (in error for 1 f T f ) 

(Weyl) 
ONE-THIRTY-SECOND RUPEE. 



91 1222 



/ 
92 
M 



1218 



In a lined circle with a row In a lined circle with a 
of dots. row of dots. 

DOUBLE-PAISA. 



Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted trunk, date 
A f T i over the tail which 

is depressed : above the 
elephant a flag, with a 
star in a central square 
surrounded by a border 
of dashes. 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PL II. 




In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



Dale. 



JB, 
93 



94 



1218 



1219 



46 

PATTAN. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



DOUBLE-PAISA coiit. 



As on No. 92, but elephant 



to left 



Io. 92, bu 
PI. II. 



As on No. 92, but field 
ornamented with dotted 
rosettes. 



As on No. 92, but date As on No. 92. 



As on No. 

irr< 



93, but date 



Do. 



A specimen of this coin in the collection of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, has a five-branched tree-like 
mark near the lower margin of the reverse and the field 
of this surface ornamented with dotted rosettes. 



96 1220 As on No. 93, but date As on No. 93. 

rr f 



97 | 1221 As on No. 93, 

frri 



but date As on No. 92. 



98 

M 



(Jackson, pi. II, 380.) 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted trunk, date 
f T r I over the tail which 
is depressed: above the 
elephant a flag, with a 
central star and four 
dashes in the corners : 
between the elephant's 
back and the flag the 

word v-5^y f divided by 
the flag-staff. PI. II 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 




On a field 
rosettes : 
mark below 

letter 



with dotted 
a special 
the 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



47 
PATTAN. 



^-J Q 



Date 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



DOUBLE-PAISA cant. 



99 
M 



1222 | As on No. 98, but date 

and word ^^yy* 
to left of the flag-staff. 
PI. II. 



TOO 1223 



101 

M 



1224 



J |w 
with 



dotted 



On a field 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

A variety exists with the star on the flag enclosed in 
a rectangle, and the word z^y^ above the elephant, 
and another is mentioned by Jackson in which the 
first two letters o" *f*$y* are to right of the flag-staff. 
Tufnell describes the coin as having the word 
on the reverse, but this is probably an error. 



As on 

rrn 



No. 99, but date 



On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 



Elephant advancing to 
right with depressed 
trunk and tail : above the 
elephant a flag, with the 
letter f in the centre and 

four oblique dashes in the 
corners. 



>! r 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. PI. III. 



^_ 5 A<yU- 

with dotted 



On a field 
rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 

There is a variety with two or more oblique pointed 
oval marks on the reverse which is otherwise plain, 
and another with a four-rayed star in the lower part of 
the field. 



4 8 
PATTAN. 



Date. 



Obverse, 



Reverse. 



102 
M 



1225 



103 1226 



104 



1197 



105 

M 



DOUBLE-PAISA cottt. 



As on No. 101, but the letter 
<-> on the flag. 



1200 



As on No. 101, but date 

err f 



There are numerous variations in this coin as regards 
the reverse which may be plain or ornamented, and in 
the arrangement of its inscription. The word 




maybe placed entirely below ^ and Jackson records 
two abnormalities in the position of the date, viz., 

i 

and 

& v> T jl f j* j The pointed oval mark 
mentioned in connexion with the coin of 1224 may be 
found, usually in conjunction with a single dotted 
rosette, either near the upper or near the lower margin ; 
a single dotted rosette is also sometimes found towards 
the middle of the right-hand margin. A specimen in 
the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, has 
a dotted cross near the left margin and in line with 
the date. 



As on No. 101, but the letter 

^ on the flag. 

(Jackson.) 

PAISA. 

Elephant to left with up- 
lifted tail: above the 
elephant a dotted rosette. 

In a lined circle with a row 
of dots. 



(Neumann.) 

Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail : 
above the tail the date 

f r. 



As on No. 

rrf 



101, but date. 



In a double-lined 
with a row of dots. 



On a plain field. 
In a lined circle with a 
row of dots. 



J* 
a field with dotted 



circle On 

rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



49 
PATTAN. 



fc 






. 


. J2 








P 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



1200 



106 
M 



107 
M 

1 08 
M 

109 
M 



no ; 1216 



1201 



1215 



PAISA cont. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the tail the date f r * * 

Jn a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 106, but date 
f r f PI HI. 

As on No. 106, but date 

( r f & 



As on No. 
ft ft I 



106, but date 



As on No. 105. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



A variety exists with the last figure of the date 
above the head of the elephant. 
As on No. 106, but date , As on No. 105. 

rrn 

(Weyl) 



in | 

M ! 



112 
M 



M 



114 



1217 



As on No. 106, but date 

iiri 



Do. 



In some copies the reverse field is plain. There are 
two marked variations in size ; in the larger and thinner 
coin the diameter of the inner circle is 20 mm., in 
the smaller and thicker coin it is 17*5 mm. In the 
latter variety the last figure of the date is above the 
head of the elephant. 



As on No. 105, but date 

If r 

(probably in error for ^ f r f ) 
As on No. 106, but date 

vf r f 

As on No. 106, but above 
the elephant v ^ 



As on No. 105. 

On a plain field. 
As on No. 105. 

v f r i _L, 



I have not seen this coin, which is recorded by 
Jackson, and am unable to state how the inscription on 
the reverse is arranged. 



M 

116 
M 



117 
M 

118 
M 



119 
M 



120 
M 



121 
M 



50 
PATTAN. 



ll 


Date. 


j 

O'uverse. Reverse. 

J 



1218 



1219 



PAISA com. 

i 
As on No. ro6, but date | As on No. 105. 

Af r f 

As on No. 106, but date I L . *{ 

sf rf 



On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 



A variety exists with a plain reverse. 

i 

. 

1220 As on No. 106, but date i As on No. 1 16. 

rr( 



1221 



As on No. 105, but date 
' i" % (probably in error 

for f r r ) above, the ele- 
phant's back. PI. III. 



As on No. 106, but date 



As on No. 112, 



As on No. 116. 



Pi. in. 

The reverse field is sometimes plain. 

As on No. 105, but date j As on No. H2. 
f T T f above the ele- | 
phant's back. PJ. Ill 

Elephant advancing to left 
with depressed tail : above I 

the elephant ^*-v ^} F ' 

h-r f 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 

Pi. III. 




A dotted rosette in the 
right upper part of the 
field. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



There is a variety on a plain field with the r* f 
at the same level as the < > 



PATTAN. 



"3 ! Date. 



Ol-verse. 



PAISA 



Reverse. 



122 
M 



1 221 | Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail : 
! above the elephant 

f r r f 



123 
M 



12 4 
M 



PI. in 



1222 As on No. 105, but date 

" T r ' above the ele- 
phant's back. 

As on No. 121, but date 

r r r ( 



-r-y- 

On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 

As on No. 112. 



125 
M 



As on No. 122, but date 

* to* w ** r 

Mil 



On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



126 
M 



On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 



There is a variet}' with the last letter of t r^T' nea 
the lower margin of the reverse, and another in which 
the first two figures of the date are placed to right of 
the word j J , 

Elephant advancing to left j As on No. 124. 
with depressed tail : 
above the elephant 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



PATTAN. 



s 








.5 











Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


S^ 









JE 

127 

M 

128 

M 



129 
M 



130 



131 
M 



1222 
1223 



PAISA cont. 
As on No. 126, but above 



j . l~ T T 
but date 
first two 

figures to right of the tail. 



the elephant ->- 
As on No. 105, 
rrPi and the 



Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail : 
above the elephant 

r r r 

_o .1 , f 

j I 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



As on No. 124. 

As on No. 116, 
plain field. 



As on No. 128. 



but a 



As on No. 125. 



As on No. 122, but date 

rrr! 

The following varieties are met with : (a} *s 
(b) first two figures of the date to right of ^ 



Elephant advancing to left 
with depressed tail: 
above the elephant 






In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 

As on No. 131, but ele- 
phant with uplifted tail, 
and above the elephant 



133 j 1224 j Elephant advancing to 
M right with depressed 

tail : above it the letter 



As on No. 124, but'field 
with dotted rosettes. 



As on No. 131. 



prri 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



In a double-lined circle with 

a row of dots. 

In addition to numerous variations in the arrangement 
of the figures of the date, the following special marks 
are also found on the reverse, usually near the lower 
margin: (a) rosette of seven dots, (&) rosette of four 
dots, (c) four-pointed star, (d) oblique pointed oval. 
PI. III. 



PATTAN. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



134 i 
M 



1225 



135 
M 



1226 



136 i 



137 
M 



138 



139 
M 



1200 



PAISA cont. 
As on No. 133, but letter As on No. 133, but date 

There are numerous variations in the date, and the 
same special marks occur as on the last coin. 

As on No. 133, but letter As on No. 133, but date 

^ irrf 

Variations in the date, and special marks also occur. 

Elephant advancing to left _.,jj 

with uplifted tail : above Wi-I/^ 

the tail a blundered date __/, 

rr 

Traces of a lined circle and Field with dotted rosettes, 
dots. Traces of a lined circle 

and dots. 

Elephant advancing to As on No. 116. 
right with uplifted tail. 
No date. 
In a double-lined circle with 

a row of dots. 
This coin is also found with a plain reverse. 

Elephant advancing to left j As on No. Il6. 

with uplifted tail. No | 

date. 
In a double-lined circle with 

a row of dots. 

HALF-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the tail the date If * 



In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 



140 
M 



1201 



As on No. 139, but date As on No. 139. 

frf pi. in. 



54 
PATTAN. 



141 



142 
M 



U3 
M 



144 
M 



146 
M 



148 
M 



Date, j 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



HALF-PAISA cont. 



1215 ] As on No. 139, but date ! As on No. 139. 

f rfc PI. in. 

i 

As on No. 139, but date Do. 

L [ T f and last two figures | 
to left of the tail. PI. Ill 

As on No. 139, but date Do. 

TfM 

i There is a larger and thinner variety with the diameter 
: of the inner circle 15*5 mm., and a smaller thicker 
! variety with the corresponding diameter 14 mm. 



1216 



1217 i As on No. 139, but date 

t < f T and last figure to 
left of the tail. 



On a fi,4d with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 



I2i8 | As on No. 139, but date I As on No. 144. 



1219 



As on No. 139, but date 



Do. 



Mr I 

There is a variety with the reverse-field plain. 
J47 1220 As on No. 139, but date As on No. 144. 

Mi . r r f 



From one to three figures of the date may be placed 
to left of the elephant's tail, and the reverse field may 
be plain. 

Elephant advancing to As on No. 144, but the 
right with uplifted tail : . field plain, 
above the elephant the! 

date f f r 

In a double-lined circle j 
with a row of dots. PI. III. j 

A variety occurs with dotted rosettes on the reverse. 



55 
PATTAN. 



. 


1 


& 




V 


Date. 





Obverse. 



HALF-PAISA 



Reverse. 



149 

M 



150 
M 



151 
M 



152 
M 



1 221 As on No. 139, but date j As on No. 144. 
( T r f and three figures 

to left of the tail. 
A variety occurs with a plain reverse. 



As on No. 148, but date 

trn 

As on No. 150. 

PL III. 



As on No. 148. 



A dotted rosette on the 

field. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 



1222 



As on No 

rrrf 

As qn No. 139, 

rrrf 



148, but date ! As on No - 148. 



but date 



154 
M 

155 



156 1223 
M 



157 
M 



On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

From one to three figures of the date may be placed 
to left of the elephant's tail. 






As on No. 148, but date 



As on No. 154. 



As on No. 148, but date 

rr r f 



As on No. isj. 



As on No. 153, but a 
dotted rosette in the 
upper part of the field. 

As on No. 148. 



As on No. 139, but date As on No. 153. 



and last figure to 
left of the elephant's tail. 



PL IV. 



56 
PATTAN. 



1 






31 


Date. 


Obverse. Reverse. 


V X 




- 


s 




. 



158 

M 



159 
M 



160 
M 



I6l 
M 



162 



1223 



1224 



1225 



1226 



HALF-PAISA com. 



As on No. 156. 



A dotted rosette in the 
upper part of the field. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



There is a variety with a plain reverse. 

Elephant advancing to 
right with depressed 
tail : above it the letter 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. PL IV. 



- 



'J* 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



Variations in the position of the figures of the date 
are met with, the most striking being one in which the 
first two figures are to right of the letters } o f J ,^ 

In some examples the reverse shows dotted rosettes, 
or a four-pointed star, and I have seen one in which 
the reverse inscription was hopelessly blundered and 
the date inverted. 

As on No. 159, but letter j As on No. 159, but date 

t'r'h 



In some examples 
reverse. The chief 
numeral 



to right of 

!! (c). 



clotted rosettes are found on the 
variations in the date are : (a) 



r 

numera 



of 

1 t 



right of j 
other three. 

As on No. 159, but letter 
PL IV. 



Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail. 
No date. 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PL IV. 



(b) numerals f f 
than 



r> J 

much larger 



As on No. 159, but 

date 1 f f j placed 
the right upper part 
the field. 
As on No. 148. 



to 
the 

the 

in 
of 






163 



164 



57 
PATTAN. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



HALF-PAISA cont. 

Elephant advancing to left As on No. 144. 

with uplifted tail. 

No date. 
In a double-lined circle with 

a row of dots. 



QUARTER-PAISA. 

1198 Elephant advancing to right. 
In a lined circle. 

(Jackson.) 



165 
M 


1200 


Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the tail the date I r 4 


i ^ j 




J* 






In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 


On a field with dotted 
rosettes. 






PL IV. 


In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 


166 


1201 


As on No. 165, but date 

rr*f PI- iv. 


As on No. 165. 




167 
M 


1215 


As on No. 165, but date 

fr u 


Do. 




168 
M 


n 


As on No. 165, but date 
off! 


Do. 




169 
M 


1216 


As on No. 165, but date 

ifri 


Do. 








There is a larger and thinner coin with the 
meter of the inner circle Ii'5 mm., and a smaller 
thicker one with the diameter 10 mm. 


dia- 
and 


I/O 
M 


1217 


As on No. 165, but date 

viri 


As on No. 165. 




171 
M 


1218 


As on No. 165, but date 

Air f 


Do. 








Weyl records this coin with the date written from 
left to right f F f A but this is- probably an error, as he 
does not catalogue the normal type. 



58 

PATTAN. 



Metal. 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



QUARTER-PA ISA com. 



172 



173 



174 



1219 



As on No. 165, but date 



As on No. 172. 



As on No. 165. 



fr* 



This coin with the designation f\j^ in error for 
is recorded by Jackson, who states that a 
specimen existed in the collection of Hultzsch. 

1220 i As on No. 165, but date As on No. 165. 



175 1221 
M 



I 7 6 



177 



178 
M 



179 



(Weyl) 
As on No. 165, but date 

irri PI. iv. 



As on No. 165, but the 
field plain. 



Jackson mentions a variety of this coin in which 
the date is represented only by the figures f f 



Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

!rri 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PL IV. 

As on No. 176. 



As on No. 175. 




1222 As on No. 175, but date 

rrrf 

As on No. 176, but date r T T f 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 175. 



Do. 



PATTAN. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



QUARTER- P A i s A con t. 



i8o ! 1222 As on No. 178. 



M 



1223 



PI. IV. 



As on No. 165, but date 



rrr 



( Tnjncll.) 




In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 165. 



182 
M 

183 



184 



1 86 
M 



f As on No. 1/6, but date As on No. 175. 

rrr f 



As on No. 182. 
PL IV. 



As on No. 177, but a four- 
dotted rosette below 

the word *>> I 



As on No. 181. PI. IV. As on No. 177. 



185 1224 Elephant advancing to 
M right v/ith depressed 

tail : above it the letter 



frr 



In a double-lined circle In a double-lined circle 



r 



with a row of dots. 



with a row of dots. 



Variations occur with regard to the figures of the date, 
in the most striking of which the last numeral is 
placed below the word ;;^| (Jackson, pi. II, 439). 

1225 As on No. 185, but letter ^ As on No. 185, but date 

Pi. IV. &rrf 

Similar variations to those of No. 185 occur also in 
this coin, including the one with the last numeral 
of the date placed below the word^^| j n ano _ 
ther the entire date, which is incorrectly given 
as ^ ^ r I ; is placed below the same word. 



PATTAN. 



i| 


Date 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



QUARTER- PAisAcont. 



187 
M 



188 
M 



1226 



189 



1216 



190 



1217 



191 1218 

M 



192 



193 



1221 



1222 



As on No. 185, but letter 
PL IV. 



As on No. 

irrf 



185, but date 



There are numerous variations in the arrangement of 
the numerals of the date, the most noteworthy 

being : (a) last figure below the <> of <~r*j 

(b) last figure below the wordy^I (c) entire date 
below this word.' 



Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail. 
No date. 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PL IV. 



- 

On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



EIGHTH-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

if r f 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



As on No. 

vfrf 



(Jackson.) 
189, but date 
(Jackson.) 



As on No. 189, but date 
A f T f PL IV. 

As on No. 189, but date 

rrrf 

As on No. 189, but date 

rrn 



In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 
No mint-town is recorded on this coin, hence it may 
have been issued from some other mint than Pattan. 
It was first recorded by Hultzsch and is figured 
by Jackson (PL II, 405). 



As on No. 189. 



Do. 



Do. 







Date. 



194 



1222 



195 



1224 



I 9 6 



197 



1225 



1226 



198 



61 
PATTAN. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



ElGHTH-PAISA 

Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail : 
above the elephant the 
date r T T I 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 
PI. IV. 

Elephant advancing to 
right with depressed 
tail : above the elephant 
the letter ] 



In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PI. IV. 

As on No. 195, but letter t_-> 



As on No. 195, but letter 



On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 

frr f 



,x> 



r 



On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 195, but date 



As on No. 

irri 



195, but date 



In the only example of this coin that I have seen, in 
the collection of the British Museum, the first two 
numerals of the date are placed above the letter 
L-J of w_Ja2 while the last two numerals are below 
the same letter. Neumann (pi. 79, 39129) gives a 
figure of the coin without a date, but this is perhaps 
an error of omission on the part of his draughtsman. 



Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail. 
No date. 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 






2. NAGAR 

(The City.) 

This town, in the Shimoga district of Mysore, which is situated 
in the north-west corner of the State, was formerly, under the name 
of BednQr, capital of the country ruled by the Ikkeri chiefs. The 
last Raja of Bednur died in 1/55, leaving an adopted son as his 
heir, and the town was taken by Haidar All in March 1763, when 
the Rani and adopted heir were both imprisoned. BednQr was the 
most important of Haidar's annexations, and he always considered 
that its capture led the way to his ultimate success. He renamed 
the town Haidarnagar after himself, and intended to make it his 
capital ; it became his family residence, and he established a local 
mint, where the well-known Haidar! pagodas and fanams were 
struck, and according to Ramchandra Rao (Memoirs of Haidar Alt 
Bahadur and of his son Tippoo Sultan) also rupees.* Nagar sur- 
rendered to General Matthews in January 1783, but was retaken by 
Tlpu Sultan about three months later, when the entire British 
garrison capitulated, and since this time it has remained in Mysore. 

From the Nagar mint, and in this respect it stands alone among 
Tipu's mints, were issued coins from the first regnal year to the 
last, without a break. The series includes in gold a single ahmadl, 
several pagodas of both the earlier and later (faruql) types, and a 
number of fanams ; in silver there is a small set of double-rupees, 
rupees, and a half-rupee, while all the copper denominations, from 
the double-paisa to the eighth -paisa, are met with. A paisa and 
half-paisa dated 1227, are the only coins kn-own to have been issued 
in the last year of Tlpu's reign, which commenced less than a month 
before his death, and no doubt their occurrence is explained by the 
remoteness of Nagar from the area of the military operations which 
culminated in the final capture of Seringapatam. In all the coins 
the border consists of a single or double-lined circle with a row of 
dots- 

Special attention may be drawn to Nos. 251, 252, 254, 255 (two 
paisasof 1225 and two of 1226) which bear incorrect dates on the 
obverse. There is also a quarter-paisa elated 1261, probably in 
error for 1221, and in three quarter-paisas of 1221 and 1226, two 
of which bear blundered dates on the obverse, the designation 
zolira (paisa) is found in place of the correct term akhtar. In my 
opinion this is the result of an error on the part of the die- 
engraver, rather than a deliberate attempt to enhance the value 
of the coin. 

The gold ahmadl is of great rarity, but some of the pagodas 
and fanams are not uncommon. All the silver coins are of 
considerable rarity, the rupees being, however, more frequently 
met with than the other values. Of the copper coins the double- 
paisas are all rare, and the one-eighth paisa extremely rare ; 
many of the paisas and half-paisas are still commonly found, but 
none of the quarter- paisas is common. While a number of the 
paisas struck before 1220 are not uncommon, those issued after 

* As rupees struck by Haidar are not known to numismatists this statement is prob- 
ably incorrect. 



63 



this year are found in still greater numbers, and the same statement 
applies to the half-paisas, which are, however, less common than 
the paisas. The following copper coins are all of considerable 
rarity : Nos. 231, 244, 251, 252, 254,255, 260, 264, 270, 278, 279, 283, 
284. 

NAGAR. 



Metal. 
Numbe 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



A! 
199 1216 



201 
M 



202 
M 



203 

M 



1 199 



AHMADT. 




ur 



200 1198 
M 



(Jackson). 

PAGODA. 



' & 



On a granulated field : in a 
double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 
PI. IV. 



As on No. 200, but regnal 
year [~ 



1200 As on No. 200, but regnal 
year f 

1215 As on No. 200, but regnal 
year t> 



JL 




In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 200, but date 



As on No. 200, but date 



- ;* 



of rf 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



* I have not seen this coin, and have assumed that the inscriptions are similar to those 
on the contemporaneous ahmadis of Pattan. 



6 4 




NAGAR. 




u 






Reverse. 


. .C 






1 


Date. 


Obverse. 


PAGODA ?#/. 




AI 








204 


1216 


; ^ 


<A<^,^ *Jb 




M 




L-2_ 


. i i^J,-jki ) 








- 1 f. ' 


v* J^>- 








r x-> r yj 












ifrr 








In a double-lined circle 


^ LUll Jl 








with a row of dots. 


U J 








PI. IV. 


In a double-lined circle 








with a row of dots. 




205 


1217 


As on No. 204, but regnal 


As on No. 204, but 


date 






year v 


vfri 




FANAM. 




206 


1197 


On a plain field : in a lined 


J nv i 








circle with a row of dots. 


jS-j 










In a lined circle with a 








row of dots. 




207 


1198 


As on No. 206. 


As on No. 206, but 


date 


M 




PI. IV. 


f f A 

1 1 | A 




208 


1199 


Do. 


Do. do. 




M 






If ^ 




209 


1200 


Do. 


Do. do. 





M 






| f f 




210 


1215 


Do. 


Do. do. 










f rro 




211 





Do. 


Do. do. 




212 


1216 


Do. 


Do. do. 




M 






viri 




213 


1217 


Do. 


Do. do. 




M 






vfrf 




214 


1220 


Do. 


Do. do. 




M 




PL IV. 






215 


1221 


Do. 


Do. do. 










irn 








The reverse field may have one or two dotted 






rosettes, or they may be absent. 





65 
NAGAR. 



. 

"5 3 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



DOUBLE-RUPEE. 



21 6 1200 



Ji 



On a field ornamented with 
dotted rosettes : in a lined 
circle with a row of dots. 



r A- 



JL 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes: in 
a lined circle with a 
row of dots. 



(Taylor, pi II, fig. 10.) 



217 



1215 



As on No. 2l6, but cyclic 
year ^ and regnal 

year 

On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes : in 
a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



J* li JU 

On a field ornamented with 
dotted rosettes : in a 
double-lined circle with a 
row of dots. 



(Marsden, pi XLV, fig. dccccxciv.) 
RUPEE. 



218 



1200 



As on No. 216. 



As on No. 216. 



66 
NAGAR. 



J- 






- 


l 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


s*. 









RUPEE cont. 



219 1216 
M 



-* 



Tri 



JL 



On a field ornamented with 
dotted rosettes : in a dou- 
ble-lined circle with a row 
of dots. PI. IV. 

HALF-RUPEE. 
220j 1215 | As on No. 217. 

DOUBLE-PAISA. 



5201 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes : in 
a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



As on No. 217. 



221 
M 



222 



1218 



1222 



Elephant advancing to right 
with trunk uplifted, date 

A ' ? 1 over the tail which 
is depressed : above the 
elephant a flag, with a 
star in a central square 
surrounded by a border 
of dashes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. PI. 
IV. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with trunk uplifted, date 

i T M O ver the tail which 
is depressed : above the 
elephant a flag, with a 
star in a central square 
surrounded by a border 
of dashes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. ' 




On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots.- 




On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 



61 
NAGAR. 



Obverse. 



Revt 



DOUBLE-PAISA cont. 



223 
M 



224 



1223 As on No. 222, but date ! As on No. 222. 

rr r f PI IV 

I I I I A 4. A . 



1224 Elephant advancing to right 
with trunk and tail both 
depressed : above the 
elephant a flag, with the 

letter I and four oblique 
clashes passing to the 
angles of the flag. 
In a double-lined circle 



225 
M 



226 



227 




1225 



228 1197 
M 



229 1199 

M 



with a row of dots. PI. 
V. 

As on No. 224, but the letter 



On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 

As on No. 224, but date 



<-r> on the flag. 

1226 : As on No. 224, but the letter As on No. 224, but date 
c^ on the flag. PL V. KM 



As on No. 221, but without 



date. 



PAISA. 



Elephant advancing to 
right with uplifted tail. 



As on No. 221. 



In a double-lined circle with <_, 

a row of dots. PL v. 

On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 

In some examples there is a dotted rosette above the 
elephant's head. 

As on No. 228. f f Q Q - 



On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 



68 
NAGAR. 



i 








5 s 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


1* 






' 



230 
M 



231 



1200 



PAISA cont. 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : date 
f T above the tail. 

| In a double-lined circle 
(without dots). PI. V. 



1 201 As on No. 230, but date 

f r.f 



As on No. 230. 
(Moor, pi II, fig- 7-) 



On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 



232 

M 


1215 


As on No. 230, but date 

6frf 


Do. 


233 
M 


1216 


As on No, 230, but date 


Do. 


234 
M 


n 


Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : date 
1 f T f above the tail. 
In a double-lined circle 
(without dots). 


Do. 


23^ 
M 


1217 


As on No. 234, but date 
vfrf Pi-V. 


Do. 


236 1218 
M 


As on No. 234, but date 

A MM 


Do. 


237 1219 
M 


As on No. 234, but date 
Ifrf 


Do. 


238 

M 


1220 


As on No. 234, but date 


Do. 


239 
M 


1221 


As on No. 234, but date 

rriM 


Do. 


240 





As on No. 239. 


Jgi 








J^ J^ 








On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 



69 
NAGAR 



.S 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



241 



246 



247 
M 



248 



PA ISA co tit 



1221 As on No. 234, but f f f 



above the ele- 



(Jackson.) 



1224 



phant. 



As on No. 240. 



242 

M 


1222 


243 
M 


1223 


244 

M 





245 


j j 



As on No. 234, but date 
r T T f f and the elephant's 
tail depressed. PL V. 

As on No. 242, but date 

rrn 



Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : date 

rr T f* above the elephant. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



As on No. 244. 



Do. 



Do. 



As on No. 230. 



(Jackson.) 



As on No. 242, but PT T f 
^^J^> above the ele- 
phant. 

(Jackson.) 

Elephant advancing to left 
with tail depressed : 
above the elephant's back 
the letter \ and date 

p T T f to right of field. 
In a double-lined circle. 



As on No. 240. 



Do. 



As on No. 247. 



Do. 



As on No. 230. 



(Jackson.) 



70 
NAGAR. 



*! 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



PAISA cont. 



249 

M 



1224 



250 1225 

M 



251 

M 



252 
M 



253 
M 



254 



255 



1226 



Elephant advancing to right 
with tail depressed : 
above the elephant's back 
the letter I 



In # double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. PL V. 



/J l ; fcj 




In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



The j* of <r->/^ is sometimes placed vertically on 
the extreme right of the field. 



As on No. 249, but letter <--> 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant's tail the 
figures i f r (in error for 

Border doubtful. PL V. 

As on No. 244, with date 
r T T I (in error for a f T f ) 
PL V. 

As on No. 249, but letter 



As on No. 251 (with figures 

rrr) 

i a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No.3254. PI. V. 



As on No. 249, but date 



As on No. 250. 



Do. 



As on No. 249, but date 

irn 



As on No. 253, but date 
represented by figures 
T P T and the inscrip- 
tion roughly executed. 

As on No. 230. 



This may possibly be a coin of 1216, but the obverse 
and its association with the reverses of coins dated 
1225 and 1226 suggest a later period. 



71 
NAGAR. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



JE 

256 

M 

257 



258 



259 
M 



260 



26l 



PAISA cont. 



1227 I As on No. 249, but letter 



Elephant advancing to left 

with tail uplifted. 
No .date. 
Border doubtful. 

Elephant advancing to 
right with tail uplifted. 

No date. 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



HALF-PAISA. 

1200 i Elephant advancing to right 
with tail uplifted : above 

the tail the date f r * 



As on No. 249, but date 

vrr f 

As on No. 230. 



Do. 



In a double-lined 
PI. v. 



circle. 



1201 As on No. 259, but date 

frf 

(Jackson.) 
1215 j As on No. 259, but date 



262 j 1216 i Elephant advancing to left 
M with tail uplifted : above 

the tail the date 1 f f \ 



In a double-lined circle. 
As on No. 262, but date 



263 ! 1217 

Ml 



264 1 22 1 As on No. 262, but date 

M frn 



On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 

As on No. 259. 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



72 

NAGAR. 



s'l 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


<U 3 








Sfc 









M 

265 

M 



266 
M 



267 
M 



268 
M 



269 
M 



270 

M 

271 



1222 



1223 



1224 



1225 



1226 



1227 



HALF-PAISA cont. 



As on No. 262, but date 



r r r 



v - 



On a field with dotted 
rosettes: in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 



As on No. 262, but date i As on No. 265. 

rrrf 



s on No. 262, but ; letter Do, 

labove the elephant and 
date f r f f to right of 

field. 



Elephant advancing to right 

with tail depressed : ^ 

above the elephant's back 

the letter ^-> 
In a double-lined circle with | On a plain field, in a 



a row of dots. 



As on No. 268, but letter ^ 



As on No. 268, but letter t* 
PI. vi. 

Elephant advancing to left. 

No date. 
In a double-lined circle. 



double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



As on No. 268, but date 
iff I 



As on No. 268, but date 

vrr f 

As on No. 259. 



(Jackson.) 



73 
NAGAR. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



IB, 
272 



1198 



QUARTER-PAISA. 



Elephant advancing to right j 
with uplifted tail, and 
right front-foot raised. 



273 
M 



1200 



In a lined circle with a row 
of dots. Pi. VI. 



Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the tail the date f r , , 

In a double-lined circle. 



f f V 

*-> 



/ 



In a lined circle with a 
row of dots. 



On a field with dotted 
rosettes : in a double- 
lined circle with a row 
of dots. 



274 
M 



275 



2 7 6 



277 



2 7 8 



1216 



1217 



As on No. 273, but date j As on No. 273. 

irri 

(Tufnell.) 

Elephant advancing to left Do. 

with uplifted tail : above 

the tail the date " \? f 
In a double-lined circle. 



1221 



As on No. 273, but date 

vf r f 

(Tufnell.) 

As on No. 275, but date 

vtri 

(Jackson.) 

As on No. 273, but date 
f i f I (probably in error 
for HTf) 



PI. VI. 



Do. 



Do. 



A- 

(The word l/frj in error for 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



(Wey1 9 No.3724J 



10 



74 
NAGAR. 

. ._ _ . . . 


Metal. 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



279 



QUARTER-PAISA cont. 



Elephant advancing to right 
with tail depressed : 
above the elephant's back 
the letter \ 



In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



rr r ( 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



280 



(Schulman : White-King Catalogue.) 



Elephant advancing to left j 
with uplifted tall : above I 
the elephant the letter j 
| and to right of field the j 

date f rr f 
In a double-lined circle. 




On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 



(Report, Mysore Arch. Survey, 1912-13, pi. IX, fig. 43.) 



28l 
M 



282 
M 



28 3 



284 



1225 



1226 



As on No. 279, but letter s- 



As on No. 279, but letter 
PL VI. 



Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 
' frf (in error for 1. r r I) 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PL VI. 



As on No. 283, but without 
date. 



As on No. 279, but date 

orrr 



As on No. 279, but date 

irrf 



As on No. 282, but word 
U (in error for 



As on No. 283. 



7,5 
NAGAR. 



36 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



EIGHTH-PAISA. 

285 1226 jElephant advancing to right 
M with tail depressed : 

above the elephant the 

letter ^ 



irn 



In a lined circle with a row In a double-lined circle 
of dots. PI. VI. with a row of dots. 



11 



3. FA1Z HISAR, 

(The Fort of Bounty). 

This name was applied to Gooty, an important town in the 
AnantapQr district, with a very strong hill-fort which rises about 
1,000 feet above the surrounding country. Marsden makes the title 
the equivalent of 'the fort of abundance,' while Taylor who follows 
Bowring (Rulers of India, 7'ipit Sultan, p. 210) prefers * the citadel of 
grace.' Gooty came under the dominion of the Marathas in 
1758, and was taken by Haidar All from the celebrated Morari 
Rao in 1/75, after a siege of nine months. The upper fort was 
practically impregnable, but it is said that the failure of a spring 
of water on which the garrison depended, led to the final capitula- 
tion. The town remained in possession of Tlpu till 1799, when it 
was captured by General Bowser. After the death of Tlpu Gooty 
was restored to the Nizam, in whose territory it was included before 
the Maratha invasion, but in l8oo, AnantapQr along with the Bellary 
and Cuddapah districts, was ceded to the East India Company. 

The coins of this mint consist of an extensive series of paisas, 
half-paisas and quarter-paisas, issued from 1215 to 1226. On many 
of them the inscriptions are coarsely executed, and there are fre- 
quent blunders in the dates, due to misplaced or reversed numerals, 
and errors in the denomination of the coins. The three latest paisas 

bear the denomination zohra, and the letters I <--> and ^ as 
they also bear dates which are usually blundered, the safest course 
to adopt is to suppose that these letters, as in the Seringapatam 
and Nagar series, stand respectively for the years 1224, 1225 and 
1226, and to date the coins accordingly. Unlike most of the letter 
coins of the two mints just referred to, those of Faiz Hisar are 
frequently dated on the obverse, but the date in a good many cases 
does not agree with that of the letter year, and in No. 339 different 
dates are found on the obverse and reverse, neither of which agrees 
with that of the letter. Fewer errors are met with in the half- 
paisas, and those of the last three years bear the denomination 
bahrdm and the same letters as the paisas. Considerable diffi- 
culties are encountered in the later quarter-paisas, where in 
addition to numerous date errors there are also errors in the denomi- 
nation of the coin. Thus in place of the correct term akhtar, 
quarter-paisas of the years 1225 and 1226 bear the designation 
bahrdm (half-paisa), and one of 1225 is actually inscribed zohra 
(paisa). As we have already mentioned, Tlpu occasionally 
allowed his coins to circulate at a higher value than they originally 
represented, and the suggestion has been made that the coins refer- 
red to in the last sentence were deliberately overvalued. It appears 
to me much more probable that they are ordinary errors, such as 
are frequently met with elsewhere among Tlpu's coins, and that 
they resulted from an imperfect knowledge of the Hindustani letters, 
on the part of the Telugu or other South Indian workmen who 
constructed the dies. 

In one of the paisas of 1225, a peculiar oblique oval mark is 
met with, as on some of the Seringapatam coins, although the fact 
that the coin bears a blundered date hardly suggests that it was 



77 



FAIZ HISAR. 

made at the latter mint. The same mark occurs on the half-paisas 
of 1225 and 1226, on a quarter-paisa of 1225, and on three quarter- 
paisas of 1226. 

In the coins of 1215 and 1216, there is an ornamental border in 
the form of a wide double-lined circle enclosing groups of four- 
dotted flowers. Commencing with I2l6, in which year both types 
of border occur, and continuing to the last year, the border 
consists of the usual double-lined circle enclosing a row of dots. 

Gooty was the seat of a mint before it was occupied by Haidar 
and Tlpu, and gold pagodas were previously struck by the Marathas 
in the name of Muhammad Shah, in imitation of what are appa- 
rently true Mughal pagodas appearing first in the reign of Farrukh- 
Siyar. These ' old Muhammad Shahi pagodas,' as they were termed, 
appear to have had an extensive local circulation, and were succeed- 
ed by the ' new Muhammad Shahi pagodas' struck in the first place 
by Haidar, but continued by Tlpu. Two of these coins are 
recorded in this catalogue under the issues of Haidar, although one 
of them, which is there classified for convenience, must from its 
date have been struck during the reign of Tipti. It was probably 
struck without Tlpu's knowledge, and as it does not conform to his 
general policy in regard to coins was perhaps soon suppressed. 

Many of the coins of Faiz Hisar are still fairly common, more 
particularly the paisas of I2l6 (with elephant to right), of I2I/, 
1221 and 1222, and the half-paisas of 1216 (both borders), 1217, 
I2i8, 1221, 1222 and 1223 ; the later paisas and half-paisas from 
1223 onwards, with the exception of No. 314, are all rare, yet several 
of the quarter-paisas of the same period are not uncommon. The 
quarter-paisas issued before 1222 are all rare. 

FAIZ HISAR. 



.* 

1 Date. 



X* 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



286 1215 
M 



287 1216 

M I 



PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 
off! 

In a wide double-lined circle 
enclosing 4-dotted ro- 
settes. PI. VI. 



As on No. 286, but date 
1 f T f and a double-lined 
border with a single row 
of dots. PL VI. 



On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a wide double-lined 

circle enclosing 4-dotted 

rosettes. 

As on No. 286. 



FAIZ HISAR. 



Date 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



JB, 
288 
M 



289 
M 



290 



291 
M 



PAISA cont. 



1216 i Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the tail the date 1 f r f 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



1217 



1218 



292 ) 1220 



As on No. 288, but date 

v*ri 

As on No. 288, but date 

A[ rr 



Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant's head the 
date A I r I 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PI. VI. 

As on No. 288, but date 
r r i (in error f or . r f I ) 



(Hultzsch.) 



On a field with dotted 

rosettes. 
In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 
As on No. 288. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



293 
M 



294 



1221 



As on No. 288, but above 
the elephant's back the 

date frri 



As on No. 291, but above 
the elephant the date 

irr! 



(Jackson.) 



Do. 



Do. 



FAIZ HISAR. 



299 
M 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



/u 

295 

M 


1221 


296 
M 


1222 


297 


- 


298 


- 



300 



As on No. 288, but above 
the elephant the date 
f IT f (in error for I f P f ) 



As on No. 288, but above 
the elephant the date 

PPPI 

As on No. 288, but above 
the elephant the date 
fPPP PL VI. 

As on No. 291, but above 
the elephant the date 

PPrf 



( Jackson.) 

1224 Elephant advancing to right 
with tail depressed : 
above the elephant the 
letter 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 
PL VI. 



As on No. 299. 



As on No. 288. PL VI. 



Do. 



Do. 



As on No. 288, but a plain 
field. 



^J- 



(Jackson.) 

301 ' 1225 | As on No. 299, but above 
M the elephant the letter 

<> and above this the 
date r*n f (in error for 
oPPf) PL VI. 



pppf 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 299, but date 
fP f P (in error for 

FTP f) placed above the 
word 



As on No. 299, but date 
r 11 f (in error for 
& r r f )placeda bove the 

word ^^j'j-* and a 
special pointed oval 



mark near 
margin. 



the lower 



FAIZ HISAR 



u 








11 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


s^ 






- 



302 



303 



PA IS A 



1226 



As on No. 299, but above 
the elephant the letter 
UL? and the date *, f M 

(Jackson.) 



As on No. 299, but date 

i r r I 



304 



As on No. 302, but date As on No. 302.' 
r r r f (in error for 1 r T f ) 
above the letter. 

(British Museum.) 

Elephant advancing to As on No. 288. 

right. No date. 
In a double-lined circle. 



(Jackson.) 




HALF-PAISA 





305 


1215 


Elephant advancing to left 


u- 
* 


M 




with uplifted tail : above 








the elephant the date 


\j** 






Mri 


t_>J 






In a wide double-lined 


In a wide double-lined 






circle enclosing 4~dotted 


circle enclosing 4- 






rosettes. 


dotced rosettes. 


306 


1216 


As on No. 305, but date 


As on No. 305. 


M 




tin 




307 




As on No. 306, but in a 


As on No. 306, but in a 


M 




double-lined circle with 


double-lined circle with 






a row of dots. 


a row of dots. A dotted 








rosette in the loop of 








the (j of \j&* 


308 


1217 


As on No. 307, but date 


As on No. 307. 


M 




vf r f 





* This is a conjecture, as in the only coin I have seen the reverse is almost illegible. 



8l 
FAIZ HISAR. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



309 ! 1217 



HALF-PAISA 



Elephant advancing to right ! As on No. 307. 
with uplifted tail : above | 
the elephant the date 

viri 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



310 
M 



311 
M 



312 
M 

313 



1218 



As on No. 307, but date 

A f r f PI. vi. 



1221 As on No. 309, but date 

frn 



1222 



M 



316 

M 



1223 



1224 



1225 



As on No. 309, but date 

r r r f PI. vi. 

As on No. 307, but date 

rrrf 

(Jackson.) 
As on No. 309, but date 

rrrf 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the letter | 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. PI. 
VI. 

Elephant advancing to right 
with depressed tail : 
above the elephant the 

letter <-r> 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. PL 
VI. 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



."rr 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 




error 



Date t> 1 1 f (in 

for * r r f ) 

Appointed oval mark 
near the lower margin. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



JE 

317 
M 



318 
M 



319 



320 



321 



322 
M 



323 



82 

FAIZ HISAR. 



. 




! 


u 






..0 








13 S 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


s 2 









1225 



1226 



1215 



1216 



HALF-PAISA com. 



As on No. 316, but above 
the letter t > the date 
Ml I (in error for ofT f) 

As on No. 316, but above 
the elephant the letter 

<-^ and above this the 
date T T T f (in error for 

irri) PI. vi. 



As on No. 316, but date 
nil (in error for 

*rrf) PI. vi. 

As on No. 316, but no 
date visible on the 
specimens examined. 



Elephant advancing to As on No. 307. 

right. No date. 
In a double-lined circle with 

a row of dots. 

(Jackson.) 
QUARTER-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

bin 

In a wide double-lined 
circle enclosing 4-dotted 
rosettes. 



As on No- 320, but date 

in* 

(Jackson.) 
As on No. 320, but date 

i \ r \ PI. vi. 



As on No. 322. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



J+ 

In a wide double-lined 
circle enclosing 4-dott- 
ed rosettes. 



As on No. 320. 



Do. 



As on No. 320, but a 
dotted rosette in the 

loop of the (jo of \j** 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



324 
325 



326 



327 



328 



329 



330 



331 
M. 



332 



83 
FAIZ HISAR. 



<u 








"3 8 

n 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


^ 


j 





QUARTER-PAISA cont. 



1217 



1222 



1223 



As on No. 323, but date 

vtn 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

vf ri 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

(Jackson.) 
As on No. 325, but date 

rrn 



As on No. 325, but date 
1 r r f (in error for f T r f ) 

(Jackson.) 

As on No. 325> but date 
m f (in error for f f T f ) 



As on No. 326. 



As on No. 323. 



Do. 



M 



As on No. 325, but date 

rrn . 

As on No. 325, but date 
p - , * f (in error for p f Tf ) 

and the elephant's tail 
depressed. PL VI. 

As on No. 325, but date 
I ~|n f (in error for rrr f ) 

PI. VI. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 323 



Do. 



Do. 



12 



JE 
333 



334 



335 



336 
M. 



337 



338 



339 



84 
FAIZ HISAR. 



1 Metal. 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



1224 



1225 



QUARTER-PAISA cont. 



Elephant advancing to right 
with depressed tail : 
above the elephant the 

letter I 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



As on No. 333, but above 
the elephant the letter <> 



As on No. 334. 

(Jackson.) 
Do. 

PL VII. 

Do. 



prn 

1* A 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 333, the date 
P r r f in error f or * T T f 

In some specimens the 
date appears to be 

rrn 

As on No. 334, but value 
of coin *^frj (in error for 



Do. 
PI. VII. 



As on No 334, but date 
T T T f (in error for & f Tf ) 

above the letter. 



As on No. 333, but date 
(in error for 
fc f ' ' ) and value of coin 
(in error for 



As on No. 336, but j* of 

S-^ to right of field and 

a pointed oval mark 
near the lower margin. 

As on No. 333, but date 
*> * 1 f (in error for 
ft I r f ) and value of 
coin rlnr (in error for 



As on No. 333, the date 
prr f in error for cf 



FAIZ HISAR 



1 Metal. 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse 


Reverse. 




QUARTER-PAISA cont. 


M 


i 




340 


1225 As 


on No. 339 


As on No. 329. 


341 


M 


As 


on No. 334. 


As on No. 323. 


342 


1226 


As 


on No. 333, but above 


As on No. 329, but a 


M. 




the elephant the letter ^ 
PI. VII. 


pointed oval mark 
near the lower margin. 


343 


M 


As 


on No 342, but date 


As on No. 329. 




\t 
j 


f T f above the letter. 






(Tufnell.) 



344 



346 



347 



348 



As on No. 343. As on No. 329, but value 

of coin fLy (in error 
for ji***\) 

As on No. 342, but date As on No. 342. 
T T T f (in error for 
above the letter. 
PI. VII. 

In some copies the two dots above the letter are omitted. 



As on No. 342, but date 
Vi 1 f (in error for 1 T T f ) 
above the letter. 

(Weyl.) 

Elephant advancing to right: 
above the elephant f . r T \ 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the figures 



In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



Do. 



As on No- 329. 



As on No. 320* but inscrip- 
tion blundered. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



349 



350 



35 M. 



86 
FAIZ HISAR. 



Metal. ] 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



QUARTER- PAISA 



As on No. 348, but above As on No. 348. 
the elephant the figures 

f r 



In a lined circle. 

As on No. 348, but ele- 
phant's tail depressed and 
above the elephant 



Elephant advancing to right 

No date. 
In a double-lined circle with 

a row of dots. 



Do. 



As on No. 320. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



Jackson mentions a variety with a double-lined circle 
on the obverse not enclosing dots. 



4. BENGALUR jji&j 
(Bengaluru, the City of Beans.) 

Bangalore, the chief town of the district of the same name, is the 
largest city in Mysore State, and now includes an important British 
cantonment. It was long celebrated for its fort, which originally 
composed of earth was rebuilt in stone and greatly strengthened by 
Haider All, in the first year of his reign. Bangalore was a favour- 
ite residence of Tipu, from whom it was taken by Lord Cornwallis 
on 2lst March 1791, after a siege of seventeen days. Th^ town was 
restored to Tlpu at the peace of 1792, when he dismantled the fort, 
but it was again rebuilt after his death, under the direction of 
Purnaiya, Dlwan of Krishnaraja. 

Copper paisas, half-paisas, quarter-paisas and one-eighth paisas 
were struck at Bangalore between the fourth and ninth regnal 
years of Tlpu Sultan. The latest coins are dated 1219, a year which 
actually commenced fourteen days after the capture of Bangalore, 
but the town was restored to Tlpu by the treaty of Seringapatam, 
on 23rd February 1792, about a month before the close of 1219, and in 
all probability the coins of this year were issued during this period. 
Although Bangalore was held by Tlpu from 1792 to his death, all 
local coinage seems to have ceased after the year 1219, an apparent 
exception being the half-pa isa dated 1222 (No. 370), which is more 
likely to be the result of some mixture of dies through error, than 
an evidence that coins were struck at Bangalore in the year record- 
ed on this specimen. It is conceivable that in this case a discarded 
reverse die of Bangalore, got mixed up with a half-paisa obverse 
of Seringapatam or some other mint. 

In all the coins of the Bangalore mint the inscription on the 
reverse is carefully executed, and the border on this side is the 
usual double-lined circle enclosing a row of dots. The elephant on 
the obverse is less satisfactory, and with the single exception of 
a half-paisa of 1215, in which the dots are present, is enclosed in a 
plain double-lined circle. 

Several of the half-paisas and quarter-paisas of this mint are 
still commonly met with, but all the paisas and one-eighth paisas 
are more or less rare ; among the special rarities may be mentioned 
Nos. 363, 365, 370, 373 and 382. The coins of the first two years 
and of the last year are less common than those of the intermediate 
period. 



88 

BENGALUR. 

* 


Metal. 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


PAISA. 


352 


1200 


Elephant advancing to right 


yj. 


M 




with uplifted tail : above 


^ ' J 






the tail the date f P 


'S* 






In a double-lined circle. 


On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 








In a double-lined circle 








with a row of dots. 


Tl IT 





As on No. 352, but date 


'As on No, 352. 


M 




' (probably in error 








for f -f f ) .. 




354 


1215 


As on No. 352, but date Do. 


M 




rru 


355 


)} 


As on No. 352, but date Do. 






t>fr.f 


356 


1216 


As on No. 352, but date Do. 


M 




f r n PI. vii. 


357 


?J 


As on No. 352, but date Do. 






f M (in error for f )\ 


358 


1217 


Elephant advancing to left 


Do. 


M 




with the tail bent forward 








over the back : above the 


PI. VII. 






tail the date ^ f T f 








In a double-lined circle. 




359 


1218 


As on No. 358, but date 


Do. 


M 




At n 




360 




As on No. 352, but date 


Do. 






AID 





(Jackson.) 



361 

M 



I2IQ 



As on No. 358, but date 
<UH 



Do 



* Moor records this coin as a paisa of 1210, but in his PI, I, fig. 12, the date is 
wrongly shown as 1211. 



89 


BENGALUR. 


S 

J3 

31 

s 2 


Date. Obverse. 

i 
i 


Reverse. 



362 
M 



363 
M 



364 
M 

365 



366 
M 



367 
M 

368 
M 

369 
M 

37 M 
M 



1215 



1216 



1217 



I2T8 



1219 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 

with a row of dots. 
As on No. 362. 



HALF-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the tail the date f H a 

In a double-lined circle. 
PI. VII. 

j Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the tail the date * f H 
In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots, 

As on No 362, but date 
f r f 1 PL VII. 

As on No. 362, but date 

Tiff . 

(Jackson.) 
As on No. 363, but date 

' and a double-lined 
circle (without dots). 

As on No. 366, but date 

j m 

As on No. 366, but date 
A f f f pi. VII. 

As on No. 366, but date 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

rrri 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

The date 1222 is an unlikely one for an issue of the 
Bengalur mint. An obverse from some other mint has 
probably got mixed up with an older and discarded 
reverse from Bengalur. 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



90 
BENGALUR. 



,0 

3 I 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Revene. 



371 



372 



373 



HALF-PAISA 



Elephant advancing to right 

No date. 
In a double-lined circle. 



As on No. 362. 



(Tufnell) 
QUARTER-PAISA. 

1200 Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 



the tail the date 
In a double-lined circle. 



As on No. 372, but date 
I T f (in error for f f 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 372. 



(Schulman : White- King Catalogue*)^ 



3/ M 4 


1215 


As on No. 372, but date 
If fo 


Do. 


37 M 5 


T2I6 


As on No. 372, but date 

rrii 


Do. 


376 





As on No. 372, but date 

tin 


Do. 




(Jackson.) 




377 





Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 


Do. 






the tail the date 1 f T f 








In a double-lined circle. 




378 


1217 


As on No. 377, but date 


Do. 


M 




^ in 




379 
M 


1218 


As on No. 377, but date 

A f r f PI. vii. 


Do. 











* This coin, No. 5132 of the Catalogue, was described as of date 1221. Through the 
courtesy of M. Schulman I was able to examine it and found the date to be 1210, as 
described above. 



91 
BENGALUR. 



JS 

a Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



QUARTER-PAISA 



380 1219 i As on No. 377, but date 

% * - * - - 

M I 



381 ! 



382 



383 

M 



384 



1216 



1218 



1219 



As on No. 372, but no date. | 
(Jackson.) 



As on No. 372. 
Do. 



ElGHTH-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 

the tail the date 1 f H 
In a double-lined circle. 



(Jackson.) 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 

the tail the date A f ^ 
In a double-lined circle. 

As on No. 383, but date 



On a field ornamented 
with clotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



As on No. 382. 
PL VII. 



Do. 



5. FARRUKH-YAB HISAR 

(The fort felicitously acquired.) 

This term was applied to Chitaldrug, situated at the foot of a 
strongly fortified hill 126 miles north-west of Bangalore, and the 
chief town of the district of the same name in Mysore. The Poligar 
or local chief was forced to submit to Haidar All in 1762, but as he 
refused to assist his conqueror and had actually sided with the 
Marathas and Nizam All in their operations against Mysore, the 
town was besieged and taken by Haidar in March 1/79- The 
name selected by Tlpu possibly refers to the fact that the fort was 
captured through treachery, on the part of the Muhammadan 
officers in the army of the Poligar. 

The mint-name has been read by Tufnell and others Farrukh- 
bab Hisar, ^>- <-r>^y ' the fort of the fortunate gate,' but in the 
earlier coins the reading is undoubtedly s-^V, ' yab '. In the later 
coins the dots of the ^ are misplaced, which has led to this letter 
being mistaken for a <-> Kirkpatrick (Appendix E, p. XLI), 
Captain Macleod (vide Beatson, Appendix,?- clxx) and Kirmani, all 
support the reading now adopted. 

Copper coins of all the denominations were issued from this 
mint in the years 1215 to 1219, both included. Moor records and 
figures a paisa dated 1201, but as it has not been met with since 
his time it is possible that a coin of 1215 has been misread. 
Attention may be drawn to the two sizes of paisa issued in I2i6. 
The coins of 1215 show a treble-lined border on both sides, 
while those of the later years have a double-lined circle enclosing a 
row of oblique dashes. 

Many of the coins of this mint are still fairly common, in 
particular the half-paisas of 1217 and I2i8 ; the coins of 1215 and 
1219 are, however, less frequently met with than those of the other 
years. The double-paisas and one-eighth paisa are rare, and none 
of the quarter-paisas is common. 



3 I 

** 



385 



1218 



386 



FARRUKH-YAB HISAR. 



Date. 



< )bverse. 



Reverse. 



DOUBLE-PAISA 



Elephant advancing to left 
with trunk upraised, date 
A f T [ near the tail which 
is depressed : above the 
elephant a flag, with a 
star in a central square 
surrounded by a border 
of dashes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of oblique 
dashes. Pi. VII. 



I2T9 As on No. 385, but date 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of oblique 
dashes. 

As on No. 385. 



PA is A. 

387 I 1201 i Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

f r* f 



In a treble-lined circle. 



u^y 
j 



388 



390 
M 



1215 



On a field ornamented 

with dotted rosettes. 
i In a treble-lined circle. 
(Moor, pi. II, fig- 8.) 



As on No. 387, but date 

fr fc 

As on No. 387, but date 
6fTI 

As on No. 389. 



Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

tin 

In a treble-lined circle. 



As on No. 387. 
Do. 



On a field ornamented 

with dotted rosettes. 
In a treble-lined circle. 
As on No. 387. 

PI. VII. 



FARRUKH-YAB HISAR. 



ft 


* 






43 








Si 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


5 fe 









& 
392 



39 



8 



394 



396 

M 



1215 



1216 



1217 



1218 



1219 



1215 



1216 



PAISA <:0/. 
As on No. 391. 

As on No. 391, but date 
^ f T f : in a double-lined 

circle with a row of 
oblique dashes. 
PL VII. 



As on No. 390. 



of 



As on No. 390, but c 
^-^ shorter. 

Two dotted rosettes near 
the upper margin. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of oblique 
dashes. 



Diameter of coin 21 mm., and of inner circle on 
obverse 16 mm. 

As on No. 393. PL VII. As on No. 393, but dotted 

rosettes on the field. 

Diameter of coin 25 mm., and of inner circle on 
obverse 19*5 mm. 



As on No. 393, but date 

vjri 

As on No. 393, but date 

Airi 

As on No. 393, but date 

1'ir.i 

HALF-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to right ! 
with uplifted tail : above j 
the elephant the date 
[Tfc 



As on No. 394. 
Do. 
Do. 




In a treble-lined circle. 
PL VII. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 



On a field ornamented 

with dotted rosettes 
In a treble-lined circle. 



In a double-lined 
with 
dashes. 




circle 
a row of oblique 



y 

On ,a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of oblique 
dashes. 



FARRUKH-YAB HISAR. 



S 
& 

i a 


Eate. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


3* 








HALF-PAISA cont. 


400 

M 


! I2T7 


As on No. 399, but date 

v f n pi. vii. 


As on No. 399. 


401 

M 


1218 


As on No. 399, but date 

A' r f 


Do. 


402 


1219 


As on No. 399, but date 


Do. 



QUARTER-PAISA. 
, 1216 ] Elephant advancing to left 



403 

M 


1210 


404 
M 


1217 


405 


1218 


406 


12:9 



with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

i f r f 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of oblique dashes. 



Lao- Ur 



r- r 



r* 



407 



1217 



As on No. 403. but date 

v-.f r i PI. vii. 

As on No. 403, but date 

Air f 

As on No. 403, but date 

ifri 

ElGHTH-PAISA, 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail: above 
the elephant the date . 

vlTI 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of oblique dashes. 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of oblique 
dashes. 

As on No. 403. 
Do. 
Do. 



>r- ,3 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of oblique 
dashes. 



(Report, Mysore Arch. Survey, 1912-13, pi IX, fig- 



6. KALIKUT CU ; 
(Kdikod, cock-fort). 

Calicut, the capital of the Malabar district, was taken by Haidar 
All in 1766 from the Zamorin or local ruler, who to evade capture 
allowed himself to be burned alive in his palace. Comparatively 
little was done to control the captured district, and the inhabitants 
led by the Nayar chiefs soon broke into revolt. In 1773 a force was 
sent by Haidar to Calicut, which quickly brought about the re- 
conquest of the whole of Malabar. The town was taken by a 
British army under Major Abington in 1782, but was restored to 
Tipu Sultan later. Tlpu himself visited Malabar early in 1788 and 
made a stay of several months, during which arrangements were 
made for transferring the seat of government from Calicut to Feroke. 
Calicut was taken by British troops towards the close of 1790, and 
by the treaty of Seringapatam in 1792, the Malabar district came 
under the jurisdiction of the East India Company. The usual 
spelling of the mint-town is that given above, but on some of the 

coins it is Kallkut ^/^ . 

Coins were struck at Calicut in gold, silver and copper, from the 
second to the fifth years of Tlpu's reign. The gold coins consist 
merely of fanams, which appeared in all the four years that the mint 
was active; the only silver coins known are two varieties of double- 
rupee struck in 1215, of which, judging from their present scarcity, 
the issue must have been very limited. The copper coins, so far as 
is known, consist only of paisas and quarter-paisas. 

The oldest dated coin is a thick coarsely executed paisa of 1198, 
in which the name of the mint-town is to the right of the field, and 
some of the letters appear to be placed at right angles to those 
making up' the rest of the inscription ; in some examples the inscrip- 
tion has degenerated into a mere scrawl (vide Neumann, pi. 45, 
no. 20088). One of the words which Jackson reads JLo sanah, 

appears to me to be ; ^-V bundar, a word which occurs clearly on 
another Calicut coin (No. 422). In the paisa of 1 199, while the 
figure of the elephant is very crude, the inscription is more carefully 
executed. There is a variety of the last coin in which the elephant 
has a thinner body than usual, and extremely slender legs. The 
later paisas are all well made, and a feature of special interest is 
that the regnal year 4 is recorded on paisas of both 1200 and 1215. 
Very few instances are known of regnal years being recorded on 
the copper coins of Trpu Sultan, this mode of reckoning being 
practically confined to the gold and silver issues. The undated 

paisa (No. 422) inscribed c>jOd$ ;<J-V S-^ (struck at the port 

Kallkut), from its general appearance is probably an early coin. 
The quarter-paisas are all undated, and in some of them the 
inscriptions are very degenerate. 

The gold and silver coins have the usual borders ; while in the 
copper series may be found a pearled circle, a plain double-lined 
circle, or more commonly the usual double-lined circle enclosing a 
row of dots. 



97 



The gold fanams of Calicut are not uncommon, but as already 
indicated the silver double-rupees are of great rarity. None of the 
copper coins is now commonly met with, except perhaps the paisa 
of 1215 with the date reading from right to left. The undated 
paisa is extremely rare. 

KALiKUT. 



s 






> 








~i 3 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


*2 a 








2, 








2 









AI 
408 



409 
M 



410 
M 



411 
M 



412 
M 



4i3 



1198 



FAN AM. 



On a plain field : in a lined 
circle with a row of dots. 



1199 As on No, 408. PL VII. 



1200 



1215 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



PL VII. 

DOUBLE-RUPEE. 



In a lined circle with a 
row of dots. 

As on No. 408, but date 



As on No. 408, but date 



As on No. 408, but date 

ffu 

As on No. 408, but date 



1215 



i r 1 



is. J u 



-jW 



,-A-o 



ju 



On a field ornamented with j On a field ornamented 
dotted rosettes : in a with dotted rosettes : in 
double-lined circle with a | a double-lined circle 
row of dots. with a row of dots. 

(Taylor, pi II, Jig. II.) 



414 



98 

KALIKUT. 



Metal. 
Number. 


Date. Obverse. 


Reverse 



DOUBLE-RUPEE cont. 



1215 



As on No. 413, but date 

*> f f f and '-i (name of the 
cyclic year) occupying 
the penultimate line. 



As on No. 413. 



(Schulman: White-King Catalogue, pi. /, No. 5099.) 

PAISA. 



415 


1198 


M 




416 


1199 


M 




<8 


1200 


418 

M 






Elephant advancing to right 

with uplifted tail. 
In a circle of large dots. 
PL VII. 



As on No. 415. 

PL VIII. 



Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

IV 

In a double-lined circle. 
PL VII. 



J 



* 6k 



J^AJ 



M/* 



On a plain field : without 
marginal border. 




In a dotted circle. 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



In some specimens the last letter ot the mint-name 

is & 
As on No. 



. VIII. 



r 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



99 
KALIKUT. 



11 



Date. 



Reverse, 



JE 

419 
M 



420 
M 



421 
M 



422 
M 



1215 



PAISA cont. 

As on No. 417, but date 

f T > a : in a double-lined 

circle with a row of dots. 

As on No. 419. PI. VIII. 



As on No. 418. 




As on No. 419, but date 

& f r r* PI. VIIL 



A four-dotted rosette near 
the upper margin. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

"As on No. 417. 



| In same specimens the last letter of the mint-name is ^ 
As on No. 415. Pi. VIIL 



On a plain field : without 

marginal border. 
QUARTER-PAISA. 



424 



425 



Elephant to right with up- 
lifted tail. 
In a dotted circle. Pi. VIIL 



As on No. 423. PI. VIIL 



Do. 






On a plain field : without 
marginal border. 




A dotted rosette to the 

left of the field. 
In a dotted circle. 
A blundered inscription 

probably intended for 



an d below this 
two short vertical lines 
and two dots. 



* Tufnell (p!. Ill, 152) figures a variety of this coin in which the right forefoot of the 
elephant is distinctly raised. The same writer records a paisa of 1218, but it appears out 
of place among the coins of 1215 in his catalogue, and the record is doubtless an error. 

14 



100 



7. FARRUKHl 
(Prosperity.) 

This name was given to the place now known as Feroke r 
situated on the south bank of the Beypore River, about seven miles 
to the south of Calicut. In 1788, Tlpu Sultan, no doubt prompted; 
by similar reasons to those which led to the destruction of the town 
of Mysore, demolished Calicut and commenced the erection of a 
fort a few miles away, around which in course of time it was, 
hoped a new Calicut would arise. The fort was still unfinished on 
10th December 1/90, when it was taken by Colonel Hartley, after 
the defeat of Tipu's army under Husain All. The designation of 
this mint is no more intelligible than are most of Tipu's newly 
invented names, but in this case it has persisted to the present day, 
thus affording a solitary instance of the term which he adopted! 
coming into general use. 

The coins of this mint, which were issued during the years I2l6,, 
1217 and 1218, consist of gold fanams, and in copper of a double- 
paisa, and single, half and quarter-paisas. Moor in his "Narrative 
of the Operations of Little's Detachment " (p. 475, pi. II, fig. 2), describes 
and figures a double-paisa of the year 1219, but there can be little 
doubt that he has misread a similar coin of the previous year, 
for the year 1219 actually commenced a few months after Farrukhl 
was captured by the British. Both Weyl and Jackson record a 
quarter-paisa dated 1226, doubtless a die error for 1216. 

In the majority of the copper coins the ornamental border on 
both surfaces consists of the usual row of dots between two lined 
circles, but in two of the paisas of I2l6 the dots are replaced by 
curved dashes. 

The paisa of 1217 is still commonly found and that of the 
following year is not uncommon. The other coins are less fre- 
quently met with, the double-paisa, the paisas of I2l6, and the 
quarter-paisas being all rare. The gold fanams afe not uncommon- 

FARRUKHL 



\ 








1 






+ 


II 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



FANAM. 



AI 




r 




1 


in 




426 


1216 


V 






> J 




M 








* 


^ 5 








On a plain field : in a lined 


In 


a lined 


circle with a 






circle with a row of dots. 


row of dots. 






PI. VIII. 










427 


1217 


As on No. 426. 


As 


on No. 


426, but 


date 








V 


Iff 






428 


1218 


Do. 


As 


on No. 


426, but 


date 








A 


in 







ioi 
FARRUKHi. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



1218 



DOUBLE-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to right ; 

with uplifted trunk, date ; 

A I T f above the tail which 

is depressed : above the 

elephant a flag, with a 

star in a central square \ 

surrounded by a border of j On a plain field 

dashes. 
Margin?* PI. VIII. Margin? 



JUlxr 




430 I 1216 



431 



432 



433 i 1217 
M 



PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 

the elephant the word 
and the date 1 f f f 



In a double-lined circle with 
a row of curved dashes. 



On a field onamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of curved 
dashes. 



(British Museum.) 



As 



on No. 430, but word 
omitted. 

(Tufnell.) 
430, but in a 



As on No. 

double-lined circle 
a row of dots. 



with 



As on No. 430. 



As on No. 430, but in a 
double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



(Tufnell, pi III, 169-) 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

< frf 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 




Three dotted rosettes in 
the lower part of the 
field. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



In some specimens the dotted rosettes are not con- 
fined to the lower part of the field. 



* On all the specimens I have seen the marginal design was incomplete, but there were 
tracse of a lined circle, and the arrangement was probably the same as in the other coins 
of the Farrukhl mint. 



102 
FARRUKHI. 



~ a 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



434 
M 



1218 As on No. 433, but date 

Afri PI. VIIL 



As on No. 434. 



436 
M 



1217 



437 
M 



438 



1218 



I2l6 



439 



1217 



As on No. 433. 




On a plain field. 
In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



HALF-PAISA, 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

< f n 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. PI. VIIL 



As on No. 436, but date 

Afri 



Three dotted rosettes in 
the lower part of the 
field. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 

As on No. 436. 



QUARTER-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to right 

with uplifted tail. 
Border ? 



irn 



(Date 1 

i f r f 

Border ? 



i n error for 



(Weyl. Jackson.) 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 



440 
M 



In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



(Weyl) 

1218 As on No. 439, but date 
/vffl PL VIIL 



A dotted rosette in the 
lower part of the field. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



As on No. 439. 



* I have not seen this coin and the arrangement of the inscription is conjectural. 



103 



8. SALAMABAD ^IfL, 
(The City of Peace.) 

This name was applied to the town of Satyamangalam, situated 
on the Bhavani river, in the northern part of the Coimbatore 
district. It was a place of considerable military importance during 
the campaigns of Haidar and Tlpu, because it lies close to the 
passes through which troops descended to the low country from 
the Mysore plateau, when operating in the south and towards the 
west coast. The town had been in the possession of Mysore for 
about a hundred years before Haidar came into power. It was 
captured by British troops under Colonel Floyd, in August 1790, 
but was afterwards abandoned. Satyamangalam remained in the 
possession of Tlpu up to the time of his death. 

A series of roughly executed copper coins was issued from this 
mint in the years 1216, 1217 and 1218. In all of them, with the 
exception of a half-paisa of 1216, there is a wide marginal double- 
lined circle crossed by radiating lines, while in the half-paisa just 
referred to, the space between the two circles is occupied by three- 
branched flowers which almost resemble arrow-heads, pointing 
around the circumference. 

The coins of this mint are all more or less rare, the paisas of 
I2l6 and 1217 being perhaps more frequently met with than any 
of the others, while the quarter and one-eighth paisa are both 
extremely rare. 

SALAMABAD. 



Metal. 

Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



441 

M 



442 
M 



443 
M 



1216 



1218 



PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the tail the date 1 f ff 



In a wide double-lined circle 
crossed by radiating 
lines. 



As on No. 441, but date 
v | T f and last figure of 

date to left of the tail. 

As on No. 441, but date 
A I T I and all the figures 
to left of the elephant's 
tail. PL VIII. 




On a plain field. 

In a wide double-lined 
circle crossed by radi- 
ating lines. 

As on No. 441. 



Do. 



104 
SALAMABAD. 



I' 






a a 


Date, j Obverse. 


Reverse. 


wjz 


i 





M 

444 
M 



445 



1216 



1217 



HALF-PAISA. 
I 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 

the tail the date 1 f 

In a wide double-lined circle 
crossed by radiating 
lines. 

As on No. 444, but date to 
left of the elephant's tail. 

In a wide double-lined circle 
enclosing a flowered 
pattern. PI. VIII. 

As on No. 444, but date 

< f r f and the last three 
figures of the date to left 
of the tail. 



I2l8 As 



on 

f r ] 



No. 444, but date 

and all the figures 
to left of the elephant's 
tail. PL VIII. 



A\\ 

ji . 

On a plain field. 

In a wide double-lined 
circle crossed by radi- 
ating lines. 

As on No. 444. 

In a wide double-lined 
circle enclosing a 
flowered pattern. 

As on No. 444. 



Do. 



448 



QUARTER-PAISA. 

1216 1 Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 

the tail the date If P f 



In a wide double-lined 
circle crossed by radiat- 
ing lines. PI. VIII. 




449 
M 



1218 



EIGHTH-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : the 
date A f r f to left of the 
tail. 



On a plain field. 
In a wide double-lined 
. circle crossed by radi- 
ating lines. 



In a double-lined circle 
crossed_ by _ radiating 
lines. 



I by 
PI. VIII. 



On a plain field. 

In a double-lined circle 

crossed by radiating 

lines. 



105 

9. KHALIQABAD ^Ij 

(The City of God.) 

This fanciful appellation was, we have every reason to believe, 
given to Dindigul, an important town in the Madura district, with 
an isolated rock which was formerly strongly fortified rising 280 
feet above the surrounding country. It first became included in 
Mysore territory in 1742, and thirteen years later Haidar All was 
appointed military governor of the place, an appointment which 
may be said to have been the commencement of his rise to power. 
Dindigul surrendered to Col. Wood in August 1767, but was 
retaken by Haidar in the following year. It surrendered once 
again to Col. Lang in May 1783, and was restored to Tlpu Sultan 
by the treaty of Mangalore in 1784. It was subsequently taken by 
Col. Stuart on 22nd August 1790, from which date it ceased to be 
included in Mysore, and was finally placed under the control of the 
East India Company by the treaty of 1792. It is on record that 
Tlpu visited Dindigul in 1788, after founding Farrukhl, but the 
coinage of Khaliqabad dates from a year earlier than this visit. 

Hawkes in 1856 recorded the statement that Khaliqabad was a 
name given by Tlpu to Chandagal, near Seringapatam, and this 
attribution has been followed generally by later writers. In Dr. 
Taylor's memoir The Coins of Tlpu Sultan, issued in 1914, will be 
found, however, a series of arguments, supplied by the present 
writer, in favour of identifying the mint with Dindigul rather than 
Chandagal, and these may be briefly recapitulated. Chandagal is 
an insignificant village at the southern end of the main ford over 
the River Cauvery to Seringapatam, and is almost within stone 
throw of the latter place. It is extremely unlikely that Tlpu would 
locate a second mint so near his chief one, and the places selected 
for coinage operations were always of importance in some way or 
other. The coins, which were only in use for a few years, are of 
coarse execution, and the dies were evidently made by workmen 
who were ignorant of the characters, which could hardly have been 
the case in a place close to Seringapatam. Many of the coins are 
not rare at the present day in the Madura district, and they are 
certainly commoner there than anywhere else, while of a number 
of Tlpu's copper coins collected for me at Dindigul some years ago, 
the majority were of the Khaliqabad mint. In the History of the 
Reign of Tipu Sultan by Mir Hussein All Khan KirmanI, it is 
definitely stated that Khaliqabad was another name for Dindigul, 
and although KirmanI is not always correct in his statements, this 
one may perhaps be accepted. It is in every way likely that such 
an important fortified town as Dindigul, dominating as it did the 
northern entrance to the Madura district, would be selected as a 
fitting location for a mint. 

One of the commonest coins of Khaliqabad is a quarter-paisa 
apparently dated 1225, an impossible year for Dindigul, but as will 
be seen from the catalogue there are numerous variations of this 
coin, and I think there can be little doubt that they are the work 
of Tamil die-cutters who were ignorant of the Arabic numerals, 
and the year intended was really 1215. 



106 



Gold fanams, and copper paisas, half-paisas and quarter-paisas, 
were struck at Khaliqabad from 1215 to I2l8. The last year is 
recorded by Marsden and Taylor (vide Coins of Tlpu Sultan, pi. I, 
fig. 3), but as will be seen from Taylor's figure the last numeral of 
the date is not erect, and some doubt may in consequence be 
expressed as to whether the year is not 1217. The coins are all 
roughly executed and the date is very frequently blundered. 

The most usual border is a double-lined circle enclosing oblique 
lines or dashes, but on some coins the oblique lines are replaced by 
objects resembling arrow-heads, or A- shaped cross-bars. 

The gold fanams are now rare, and with the exception of some 
of the blundered quarter-paisas of 1215 which are not infrequently 
met with, none of the copper coins can be said to be common. In 
fact the paisas must be described as moderately rare. 

KHALIQABAD. 



3 | ! Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



450 



1215 



FANAM. 



On plain field: in a lined 
circle with a row of dots. 



In a lined circle with a 
row of dots. 

(British Museum, fide Jackson.) 




451 
M 



1217 



1215 



As on No. 450. PI. IX. 

PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 

(?) above it the date ^ f f 

(in error f or & ^ and the 

word 
Border ? 



As on No. 450, but date 

< f ri 




Border ? 



(British Museum, fide Jackson.) 



453 
M 



1217 



Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail: above 
the elephant the date 

< m 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of thick oblique 
dashes.* Pi. IX. 




On a plain field. 

In a double-lined circle 

with a row of thick 

oblique dashes. 



* A Khaliqabad paisa sold at the White-King sale was catalogued as of date 1212. 
I examined it and found it to be a paisa of 1217. 



KHALIQABAD. 



Metal. 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



454 



1215 



455 
M 



456 



1218 



457 



121.5 






458 
459 

460 
461 



HALF-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 



In a double-lined circle with 
a row of thick oblique 
clashes. 



On a plain field. 

In a double-lined circle 

with a row of thick 

oblique dashes. 



(Tufnell,pl. IV, 759.; 
As on No. 454, but date | As on No. 454. 

< f r f PI. ix. 



As on No. 454 (?), but date 



(Marsden.) 



As on No. 454 (?). 



QUARTER-PAISA. 
Elephant advancing to left \ 
with uplifted tail: above 
the elephant the date 

f r fo (in error for f^ft) 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of oblique cross- 
lines. PI. IX. 



As on No. 457, but date 
Af T& (in error for Iff o) 

As on No. 457, but date 
v f T a (in error for (Tic) 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of arrow-heads (/^\) 



As on No. 457, but date 
f f "j 6 (in error for f T f &) 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of A -shaped cross- 
bars. PI. IX. 

As on No. 457, but date 
T f T o (in error for ( T f fc) 

(Wcyl) 




On a plain field. 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of oblique 
cross-lines. 



As on No. 457. 



Do. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of A- shap- 
ed cross-bars. 

As on No. 459. 



As on No. 457. 



1 08 
KHALIQABAD. 



11 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



462 ! 12:5 



463 
464 
465 



1216 



466 



467 



468 



469 



1217 



As on No. 457. 



QUA RTER-P A IS A 

Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 
C T r f (in error for & | T f ) 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of oblique 
cross-lines. 

As on No. 462, but date 
bill (in error fore f r I) 

As on No. 462, but date 
t> 1 1 > (in error for c f T f ) 

As on No. 459, but date 

riri 

To the right of the date 
and separated from 
it by the tip of the elep- 
hant's tail is the numeral 
t 

(Jackson, pi. II, 286.) 
As on No. 462, but date % As on No. 457. 



Do. 
PI. IX. 

Do. 



As on No. 459. 



(Jackson.) 

As on No, 462, but date 
T f f f (in error for 1 f r f ) 
and in a double-lined 
circle with a row of 
arrow-heads. Pi. IX. 

As on No. 457, but date 
< ( T I : in a double-lined 

circle with a row of oblique 
dashes. 

As on No. 468, but date 
v f T i *. the first two figures 
separated by the end of 
the elephant's tail. 
PI. IX. 



As on No. 459. 



As on No. 457, but in a 
double-lined circle with 
a row of oblique dashes. 



As on No. 468. 



109 
KHALIQABAD. 



Metal. 
Number. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



QUARTER-PAISA cent. 

M \ 

470 1217 As on No. 469, but in a dou- As on No. 459. 

ble-lined circle with a 
row of arrow-heads. 



471 



472 
M 



473 



474 



475 



476 



478 



479 



As on No. 462, but date 
v | T f : in a double- 
lined circle with a row of 
arrow-heads. Pi- IX. 

As on No. 471, but date 
v f f 1 (in error for v f T ! ) 

As on No. 457, but date 

< T ( (in error probably 

for v f r f 

As on No. 457, but date 

< f f (in error probably 

for v f r f ) 



(Weyl) 

T2I8 ! As on No. 457, (?) but date 

Af ri 

(Marsden.) 

As on No. 457, but date 
represented by the figures 

II 

(Weyl) 

As on No. 462, but date 
represented by the figures 
^ : in a double-lined 

circle with a row of A - 
shaped cross-bars. 

! Elephant advancing to left. 

No date. 
In a lined circle and ring of 

dots. 

(Jackson.) 

As on No. 478. 



(Jackson.) 



Do. 

Do. 

As on No. 457, 

Do. 



Do. (?). 



Do. 



As on No. 459. 



As on No. 468. 




no 



10. ZAFARABAD 

(The City of Victory.) 

This name was at first assigned to Mercara, the capital of Coorg, 
but in December 1785 (1200 A.H.) it was transferred to Gurram- 
konda (vide Kirkpatrick, pp. 206, 224). From their dates none of the 
coins could, therefore, have been struck at Mercara. 

Gurramkonda, a town in the Cuddapah district with a strong 
hill-fort, was taken by Haidar All in 1768 from the Nawabs of 
Cuddapah, who owed allegiance to the Nizam. A few years later 
it surrendered to the Marathas, from whom, however, it was 
recaptured by Tlpu Sultan early in 1/74. In 1791 the town was 
invested by British troops and a strong force of the Nizam's, but 
the fort managed to hold out till the following year, when peace 
was declared. By the treaty of 1792 the Cuddapah district was 
restored to the Nizam, by whom in 1800, it along with the Bellary 
and Anantapur districts was ceded to the East India Company. 

The coins of this mint consist of a small series of paisas and of 
half and quarter-paisas, struck from 1215 to I2i8, but no coin of the 
year 1217 has yet been recorded. In most of them the border 
consists of the usual double-lined circle enclosing a row ot dots. 
Two of the half-paisas, however, exhibit peculiar borders ; in one 
of them the double-lined circle on both sides encloses objects 
resembling arrow-heads, while in the other the border just descri- 
bed occurs on the reverse, and the obverse has groups of three 
short concentric lines within the double circle. 

The least rare of the Zafarabad coins is the half-paisa of 1218, 
which is still occasionally met with. All the other coins of this 
mint are more or less rare, and some of them are now very seldom 
met with. 

ZAFARABAD. 



3 I 



480 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



1216 



PATSA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

ii ri 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



"~ y 

On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



(Schulman : White-King Catalogue. Jackson.) 



Ill 

ZAFARABAD. 



1 








n. 


Tate. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


? 






' 






JE 

481 



482 

M 



483 



PAISA cent. 
I2l8 I As on No. 480, but date As on No. 480. 



(Tufnett,plir,t9l.) 

As on No. 481, but date 
A h f (in error f or A f f f ) 

HALF-PAISA. 



Do. 
PI. IX, 



484 

M 



1215 



1216 



486 
M 



487 



Elephant advancing to right 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

ofrf 

In a double-lined circle en- 
closing objects resembl- 
ing arrow-heads. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

if ri 

In a double-lined circle en- 
closing groups of three 
short concentric lines. 




On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
enclosing objects re- 
sembling arrow-heads. 

As on No. 483, but the 
field plain. 

In a double-lined circle 
crossed by irregular 
lines which in parts 
tend to resemble arrow- 
heads. PI. IX. 



I2l8 



1218 



As on No. 484. As on No. 483. 

In a double-lined circle with In a double-lined circle 
a row of dots. Pi. IX. with a row of dots. 

As on No. 485, but date I As on No. 485. 



QUARTER-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant the date 

A! r f 

In a double-lined circle with 
a row of dots. 



In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



16 



112 



II. DHARWAR 
KHWURSHED-SAWAD 

( The sun-blackened place J 

From Dharwar, the chief town of the district of the same name 
in the extreme south of the Bombay Presidency, were issued in 
the year 1216 two coins in gold and one in silver. In the two 
following years a limited number of coins in gold, silver and 
copper, were struck at the same mint, to which the fanciful name 
Khwurshed-sawad was now applied. This strongly fortified town 
was taken by Haidar All from the Marathas in 1778, the garrison 
of the fort being deceived by an ingenious stratagem. It finally 
surrendered to the combined British and Maratha army on 7th 
April 1791, after a siege of twenty-nine weeks. By the treaty of 
Seringapatam it was, in the following year, restored to the 
Marathas. 

The pagoda with the mint name Dharwar follows the earlier or 
sultanl type, while the two later pagodas, in which the mint 
appears as Khwurshed-sawad, conform to the faruql type; in all 
three the border consists of a lined circle enclosing a row of dots, 
but in the two later coins and on the reverse of the oldest one the 
circle appears to be single. The rupees also bear the two mint 
names ; all belong to the later type or imaml, and the border is a 
single or double-lined circle enclosing a row of dots. Only three 
copper coins are known, and these have a distinctive border 
consisting of a wide double-lined circle enclosing dots in groups 
of three, arranged in triangular fashion, with considerable intervals 
between. Two peculiar ' arrow-head ' marks are noticeable on the 
reverse of the paisa of 1217. 

The coins of this mint are all more or less rare, the paisa of 
I2l8 being perhaps the least rare. The rupees are of considerable 
rarity, and the same may also be said of the half-paisa. 

DHARWAR. 



si 








JD 








|J 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



PAGODA. 



AI 

488 

M 



1216 



On a granulated field : in a 
double-lined circle with a 
row of dots. Pi. IX. 



Tin 



In a single-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



DHARWAR. 
KHWURSHED-SAWAD. 



OJ 








. ,0 








S3 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


2 2 









489 



1216 



490 



1216 



rei; 



492 I 1218 



FANAM. 



ifr 



On a plain field: in a lined 
circle with a row of dots. , 

In a lined circle with a 

row of dots.* 
(Schulman : White-King Catalogue.) 

RUPEE. 



fl 



ti 



JL 



In a double-lined circle with 



f*- JL. 



In a double-lined circle 



a row of dots. 

(Jackson.pl. II, 288.) 

PAGODA. 



with a row of dots. 



The ^ (Haidar's initial) is 

united to the last letter of 
faruql. 

In a lined circle with a row 
of dots. PI. IX. 



^. Joyi ; !1 

A few dotted rosettes in 

the field. 
In a lined circle with a 

row of dots. 



As on No. 491, but regnal As on No. 491, but date 



year 



Af rf 



* I have not scan this coin and the inscription on the reverse is conjectural. 



114 



KHWURSHED-SAWAD. 



:i-| 






3 3 i Date. 

3 ! 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


l3 12 ' 







RUPEE. 



493 



494 



495 



1217 



JU 



1218 



496 
M 



vfr 



In a lined circle with a row 
of dots. 



As on No. 493, but cyclic 
year ^ and date A f ^ 

PAISA. 



1217 ! Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted- tail : above 
the tail the date < ( T f 

In a wide double-lined circle 
with groups of three dots 
.'. placed at consider- 
able intervals. 



~ c jV 



A dotted rosette near the 

upper margin. 
In a lined circle with a 

row of dots. 

As on No. 493, but regnal 
year A 



I2i8 



A variety of this coin in the 
series of dotted rosettes 
elephant. 

As on No. 495, but date 
AfTf 

PI. IX. 



A mark resembling an 
arrow-head near the 
upper margin, and a 
second smaller one 
between the two upper 
lines of the inscription. 

The same border as on 

the obverse. 

British Museum has a 
on the obverse above the 



As on No. 495, but with- 
out the arrow-head 
marks. 



KHWURSHED-SAWAD. 



Date- 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



497 I 1217 

Mi 



HALF-PAISA. 

Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 
the elephant three groups 
of four-dotted rosettes 
and the date < f f f 

In a wide double-lined 
circle, with groups of 
three dots .'. placed at 
considerable intervals. 
Pi. IX. 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

The same border as on 
the obverse. 



tl6 



12. NAZARBAR ; V j& 

(Scattering favour.) 

In 1/87, Tipu Sultan wishing to destroy the evidences of Hindu 
power, demolished the old fort and town of Mysore, and erected 
a new fort about a mile to the east of the older one, to which the 
above fanciful name was given. Mysore or Mahishur derjves its 
name from Mahishasura, the buffalo-headed monster destroyed by 
Kali, who is locally known as Chamundi. It has been the capital 
of the State since the death of Tipu, but it was an important 
city, and the seat of the Rajas or Wodeyars, long before the 
Muhammadan usurpation. The fort of Nazarblr was still un- 
finished in 1799, and the stones used in its construction, which had 
actually been taken from the old fort, were brought back and used 
in the restoration of the latter. 

The coinage of this mint is limited to a paisa, half-paisa and 
quarter-paisa, struck in 1216, all of which are somewhat rare, the 
half-paisa being, however, more frequently met with than the 
other two. The border in all is a double-lined circle enclosing a 
row of dots, as in the Seringapatam coins. Mysore is only a 
few miles distant from Seringapatam, where possibly the Nazarbar 
coins were actually struck. 

NAZARBAR. 



Q> 








,2 








M 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



498 

M 



1216 



PAISA. 



Elephant advancing to left 
with uplifted tail : above 

the tail the date 1 f F f 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 
PI. IX. 



On a field ornamented 
with dotted rosettes. 

In a double-lined circle 
with a row of dots. 



HALF-PAISA. 

499 I 1216 i As on No. 498. PI. IX. | As on No. 498. 

QUARTER-PAISA. 

500 1 216 As on No. 498. As on No. 498. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The following books or publications, which deal directly or 
indirectly with the coins of Haidar All and Tlpu Sultan, are 
arranged in chronological order : 

I. A Narrative of the Operations of Captain Little's Detach- 
ment and of the Mahratta Army, commanded by Purseram Bhow ; 
during the late Confederacy in India, against the Nawab Tippoo 
Sultan Bahadur. By Edward Moor, Lieutenant on the Bombay 
Establishment. London : 1794- 

Coins of Tlpu Sultan on pp. 465-481. Plates I and II. 

II. View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo 
Sultaun. By Lieut.-Col. A. Beatson. London : 1800. 

III. Select Letters of Tippoo Sultan. By William Kirkpatrick. 
London: l8ll. 

IV. Numismata Orientalia Illustrata. The Oriental Coins, 
ancient and modern, of his Collection, described and historically 
illustrated. By William Marsden, F.R.S. Part II. London : 1825. 

Coins of Tlpu Sultan on pp. 699-725. Plates XLV, XL VI. 

V. A brief sketch of the Gold, Silver, and Copper Coinage of 
Mysore. By Lieut. H. P. Hawkes. Bangalore : 1856. 

Coins of Haidar Alt and Tipu Sultan on pp. 1-12. Plates 
I and II. 

VI. Beschreibung der bekanntesten Kupfermunzen von Josef 
Neumann. DritterBand. Prag: 1863. 

Coins of Tlpu Sultan on pp. 48-53. Plates XLIV, XLV, 
XLVII. 

A few references also in Sechster Band : 1872, p. 160. Plate 79. 

VII- History of the Reign of Tlpu Sultan. By Mir Hussein 
Ali Khan Kirmani. Translated by Col. W. Miles. London : 1864. 
Names of forts on p. 83 ; reference to coins p. 285. 

VIII. Verzeichniss von Miinzen und Denkmunzen der Jules 
Fonrobert'schen Sammlung. Gefertigt von Adolph Weyl. Berlin : 
1878. 

Coins of Haidar All and Tlpu Sultan, pp. 229-236. 

IX. Government Central Museum, Madras. Coins. Catalogue 
No. I. Mysore. By Edgar Thurston. Madras : 1888. 

Coins of Haidar All and Tlpu Sultan, pp. 9-14, 19-28 and 
34-44. Plates I to III and V to X. 

X. Catalogue of Mysore Coins in the Collection of the Govern- 
ment Museum, Bangalore. By Capt. R. H. Campbell Tufnell. 
Madras: 1889. 



Coins of Haidar All and TlpQ Sultan, pp. 7-14, 22-52. 
Plates I to W. 

XL The Names of the Coins of Tipu Sultan. By E. Hultzsch, 
Ph. D. Indian Antiquary, Vol. XVIII, p. 315, 1889. 

XII. Mysore A Gazetteer. By B. Lewis Rice. Volume I. 
London: 1897. 

Coins of Haidar All and Tipu Sultan, pp. 803-807. Plate II. 

XIII. Catalogue Collection du Dr. L. White King, vente a 
Amsterdam le 18 Decembre 1905 et jours suivants. J. Schulman. 
Quatrieme Partie. Amsterdam : 1905. 

Coins of Haidar All and Tipu Sultan, p. 6, PI. I. 

XIV. Coin Collecting in Mysore. By Major R. P. Jackson. 
British Numismatic Journal, Vol. V, 1909. 

Coins of Haidar AH and Tipu Sultan, pp. 13-45 (separate 
copy). Plates I and II 

XV. Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department for the 
year 1912-13. By R. Narasimhachar. 

Coins of Tipu Sultan on PI. IX. There are short references 
to Tipu's coins in some of the other Reports of this series. 

XVI. The Coins of Tipu Sultan. (Occasional Memoirs of the 
Numismatic Society of India). By Rev. G. P. Taylor, M.A., D.D. 
Oxford : 1914. Two plates. 

XVII. Note on the Dates of the MaulQdl Era of Tipu Sultan 
of Mysore. By J. R. Henderson. Numismatic Supplement 
No. XXIII, p. 251, Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal (New Series), 
Vol. X, 1914. 



LIST OF COINS ILLUSTRATED 



The numbers of the gold and silver coins are followed by the 
usual letters for these metals, while the copper coins are merely 
numbered. In all cases the numbers are those under which the 
coins are described in the catalogue. 

PLATE I. 

Coins of Haidar All and Tlpu Sultan (Seringapatam). 
I. Haidar All. Pagoda (Siva and Parvatl). 



3- 
5- 
6. 

7- 

8. 

10. 

II. 

13- 
14- 
15- 
17- 
22. 

23- 
25- 
3. Tlpu Sultan. Seringapatam. 

8. 
13. 
14. 
17- 
23. 

41. 

46. 



(Muhammad Shah) ; Gooty, 1194. 
Half-pagoda (Siva and Parvatl). 

(Vishnu). 
Fanam (Siva and Parvatl). 

1189. 

,, H66(?). 

Paisa ; Seringapatam, II9S- 
Bellary. 
Bellary. 

,, Seringapatam. 
Double-cash, with Kanarese numerals. 
Tiger and battle-axe ; half-paisa. 

quarter-paisa. 

eighth-paisa. 

Ahmadl, 1215. 
Sadlql, 1217. 
Pagoda, 1198. 
1200. 

(faruql), 1217. 
Fanam, 1197. 
Double-rupee, 1198. 
1216. 



NOTE. --The coins of Haidar All occupy the upper half and thos3 of Tip 5 Sultan the 
lower half of the plate. As the two series are numbered separately in the catalogue 
similar numbers occur in the two parts of the plate. 

PLATE IE. 
Coins of Tlpu Sultan (Seringapatam) cont. 

47. Seringapatam. Double-rupee (haidarl), 1216. 
53. Rupee (imamT), 1216. 



57- 
67. 
70. 
77- 
83- 
92. 

93- 
98. 
99- 



1219. 

Half-rupee (abidl), 1222. 
Quarter-rupee (baqirl), 1217. 
Eighth-rupee (jafarl), 1221. 
Sixteenth-rupee (kaziml), 1221. 
Double-paisa (othmanl), 1218. 

12:8. 
Double-paisa (mushtarl), 1221. 

1222. 



120 

PLATE III. 

Coins of Tipu Sultan (Seringapatam) cent. 
101. Seringapatam. Double-paisa (mushtari), 1224, 
107. Paisa, 1201. 

1 18. 1220; 1260 in error. 

119- 1221. 

120. 1221. 

121. (zohra), 1221. 

122. (zohra), 1221. 

I33-a. (zohra), 1224; variety with 7-dotted 

rosette. 

133-0. (zohra), 1224; variety with star. 

133-d. ,, variety with pointed 

mark. 

140. ,, Half-paisa, 1201. 

141- 1215. 

142. I2I5- 

148. ,, 1220. 

151. (bahram), 1221. 

PLATE IV. 

Coins of Tipu Sultan (Seringapatam cont. Nagar). 
157. Seringapatam. Half-paisa (bahram), 1223. 

159- J224- 

161. 1226. 

162. Half-paisa, no date. 

165. Quarter-paisa, 1200. 

166. * 1201. 
175- M 1221. 
176. 1221. 

I8o. (akhtar), 1222. 

183. 1223. 

184. ,, 1223. 

186. 1225. 

187. ,, ,, 1226. 

188. no date. 
191. Eighth-paisa, 1218. 

194. (qutb), 1222. 

195- 1224. 

200. Nagar.- Pagoda, 1198. 

204. (faruql), I2l6. 

207. Fanam, 1198. 

214. 1220. 

219. Rupee (imaml), I2l6. 

221. Double-paisa (othmani),.l2l8. 

223, (mushtari), 1223. 

PLATE V. 
Coins of Tlpu Sultan (Nagar cont.). 

224. Nagar. Double-paisa (mushtari), 1224. 
226. 1226. 
228. Paisa, 1197. 

228-a. 1197; rosette variety. 

230, 1200. 



121 

235- Nagar. Paisa, 1217. 

242. ,, (zohra), 1222. 

249. 1224. 

25 1 - 1225; 216 in error on the obverse. 

2 5 2 - M ,, 1225 ; 1223 in error on the obverse. 
255. >, 1226 (?) ; 216 in error. 

259. Half-paisa, 1200. 

265. (bahram), 1222. 

PLATE VI. 

Coins of Tlpu Sultan (Nagar cant. Gooty). 
2/0 Nagar. Half-paisa (bahram), 1227. 
272. Quarter-paisa, 1198. 
275- M Quarter-paisa, 1216. 

,, Quarter-paisa (akhtar), 1226. 
283. Quarter-paisa (zohra in error for akhtar), 1226. 

285. Eighth-paisa (qutb), 1226. 

286. Gooty. Paisa, 1215. 

287. Paisa, 1216. 
291. Paisa, 1218. 

2 95- i, Paisa, 1221 ; 1661 in error. 

297. Paisa, 1222. 

299. Paisa (zohra), 1224. 

301. Paisa (zohra), 1225 ; 1663 in error on the obverse. 

3 J 0. Half-paisa, 1218. 

312. ,, Half-paisa, 1222. 

315- Half-paisa (bahram), 1224. 

316. Half-paisa (bahram), 1225 ; 1665 in error on the 

reverse. 
317- Half-paisa (bahram), 1225 ; 1663 in error on the 

obverse, and 166 (3) in error on the reverse. 
3l8. Half-paisa (bahram), 1226; 1222 in error on the 

obverse. 

322. Quarter-paisa, 1216. 

331' Quarter-paisa, 1223; 1663 in error on the obverse. 
33*-a. Quarter-paisa, 1223 ; as the last coin, but the tail of 

the elephant depressed. 
332. Quarter-paisa, 1223; 1663 (with reversed 3) on the 

obverse. 

PLATE VII. 

Coins of Tlpu Sultan (Gooty cont. Bangalore, Chitaldrug, 

Calicut). 
336. Gooty. Quarter-paisa (bahram in error for akhtar), 1225 ; 

1222 in error on the reverse. 
338. Quarter-paisa (bahram in error for akhtar), 1225 J 

1665 in error on the reverse. 
342. Quarter-paisa (akhtar), 1226. 
345. Quarter-paisa (akhtar), 1226; 1222 in error on the 

obverse. 

356. Bangalore. Paisa, I2l6. 
358. Paisa, 1217. 

362. Half-paisa, 1215. 

364. Half-paisa, 1216. 



122 

368. Bangalore. Half-paisa, 1218. 
379. ,, Quarter-paisa, 1218. 

383. Eighth-paisa, 1218. 

385. Chitaldrug. Double-paisa (othmam), I2l8. 
Paisa, 1215. 



389. 
393- 
394- 
398. 
400. 
404. 



Paisa, I2l6. 

Paisa, 1216; larger and thinner variety. 

Half-paisa, 1215. 

Half-paisa, 1217. 

Quarter-paisa, 1217. 



404. yuarter-p 

409. Calicut. Fanam, 1199. 
412. Fanam, 1215. 

415. Paisa, 1198. 

417. Paisa, 1200. 

PLATE VIII. 
Coins of Tipu Sultan (Calicut cont. Feroke, Satyamangalam). 

416. Calicut. Paisa, 1199. 

418. , Paisa, 1200 ; fourth regnal year. 

420. , Paisa, 1215 ; fourth regnal year. 

421. , Paisa, 1215. 

422. , Paisa, no date. 

423. , Quarter-paisa, no date. 

424. , Quarter-paisa, no date. 
426. Feroke. Fanam, 1216. 

429. Double-paisa (othmanl), 1218, 
434. Paisa, I2l8. 

430. Half-paisa, 1217. 
440. Quarter-paisa, 1218. 
443. Satyamangalam. Paisa, 1218. 
445. Half-paisa, 1216. 

447. ., Half-paisa, I2i8. 

448. Quarter-paisa, I2l6. 

449. Eighth-paisa, I2l8. 

PLATE IX. 

Coins of Tipu Sultan (Dindigul, Gurramkonda, Dharwar, 

Mysore). 

451. Dindigul. Fanam, 1217. 

453. Paisa, 1217. 

455. Half-paisa, 1217. 

457. Quarter-paisa, 1215 ; 1225 in error. 

460. Quarter-paisa, 1215; 2165 in error. 

463. Quarter-paisa, 1215 ; 1665 in error. 

466. Quarter-paisa, I2l6 ; 1116 in error. 

468. Quarter-paisa, 1217. 

471. Quarter-paisa, 1217. 

482. Gurramkonda. Paisa, I2l8 ; 1618 in error. 

484. Half-paisa, 1216. 

485. Half-paisa, 1216. 
488. Dharwar. Pagoda, 1216. 

491. Pagoda (faruql), 1217. 

496. Paisa, 1218. 

497. Half-paisa, 1217. 

498. Mysore. Paisa, 1216. 

499. Half-paisa, 1216. 






ERRATA. 

Plate I. For 23 fl. read 2$ M. 

Plate IV. The obverse and reverse of 204 A have been transposed, 
Plate VI. No. 331 shows a variety in which the elephant's tail is 
raised. No. 33I-fl shows th.e tail depressed as 
described in the Catalogue.. 
Plate VII. For 389 read 391.. 

No. 409 /i shows a variety in which the last letter of the 

mint-name is omitted. 
Plate IX. For 466 read 467. 
For 468 read 469. 

The obverse and reverse of 488 AI and 491 AI have been 

transposed. 



PLATE I 





1 A/ 









5 A/ 



6 A/ 




1O A/ 



w 



14 



17 





.-. *a m 

&r v^S^ 



15 



ft i 



23 



f$ 
^ 



- 

13 A/ 




&;ii 



23 



41 >R 

-^5-^ks ,-^. 



/ ^ r^agjm a 

i'^cm s^i *& 






14 A/ 



46 /R 





17 



HAIDAR ALT TTPU SULTAN; SERINGAPATAM 



PLATE 



* ^ 

1> 



KVSV.^A ^ ^ '> ^ ;- S 

"^T v \ ifS^vV-^ ^ r^v 
v --- 



* 

fc , ( 




99 



TIPO SULTAN; SERINGAPATAM 



PLATE III 







^^ 




122 




n\ r'lg. 

v> > *^ - 



r\ |, ,-<"-, 

y^ - - ~ CT^*' _^-^-r M 



-' " w'~ Xw "^ 

^-^C ^ i 



133 




^-^ ^,, 



^ x /^ ^A 

^' %S ^ ^fir %^' 

X^X^r ^^J^ ^^^j^X V *9ur 







140 



TTPU SULTAN; SERINGAPATAM 



PLATE IV 




fr,:m JTJ| $ m 

^ x \~^ >/ 

^S+~L*r \^<-^ -~&?yr ^^i^ 

^*~~- ^*i^; 

157 161 



5fcs 




165 



162 







y 



^^ ^^^^> 

204 A/ 
^ 



221 



^ 

2O7 A/ 



5S 



CX- 



223 





TIPU SULTAN; SERINGAPATAM, NAGAR 



PLATE V 




224 







226 





228 




259 265 

TlPQ SULTAN; NAGAR 



PLATE VI 




270 



272 



275 



: >" ^ ^ ^^^^H 
wO - 




331 a 332 



317 



318 



TlPU SULTAN ; NAGAR, GOOTY 



PLATE VII 




4-15 



TTPO SULTAN; GOOTY, BANGALORE, CHITALDRUG, 

CALICUT 



PLATE VII 



m 

Qyl - -^ -'I 



m /^ t m 



^uctii XT 

N> .. . kk ^ Xt^^ 




44O 




^ ..^v'Jj:-. 

- ^ . 









449 



448 



TlPU SULTAN; CALICUT, FEROKE, SATYAMANGALAM 



PLATE IX 






455 



451 A/ 








457 



460 



463 




466 







468 



471 




482 










485 







488 A/ 





491 A/ 












496 



498 






497 



TIPO SULTAN; DINDIGUL, GURRAMKONDA, DHARWAR, 

MYSORE 



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University of Toronto 
Library 



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